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Care work provided in homes and institutions is a public good that is under-valued by society. Care workers are more likely to have low earnings and precarious working conditions. About 9 in 10 care workers are women. Most unpaid care work within households is carried out by women. The 'unpaid care penalty' for women in the EU, which is equivalent to the earnings they lost because of this unbalanced distribution of care responsibilities, is estimated to reach €242 billion per year. EU action in the ...

According to a recent European Parliamentary Research Service Cost of Non-Europe (CONE) report, ambitious and united European Union (EU) action in climate and energy policy could be very beneficial, bringing gains of up to 5.6 % of gross domestic product (GDP), equal to €1 trillion additional GDP per year in 2050, compared to a continuation of the status quo (see Figure 1). However, failure to arrive at a common approach, in particular by collectively addressing volatile energy prices and systemic ...

Linking national spending on the environment with the effects it has on the environmental performance of EU Member States allows for a better assessment of the effective quality of budgetary interventions. In this analysis, based on the detailed research paper in the Annex, we discuss under what circumstances some public environmental expenditure could be spent more efficiently at EU rather than at national level. We estimate that this transfer towards a more efficient level of governance would allow ...

This activity report summarises and explains the work undertaken by the European Parliament in the fields of impact assessment and European added value during the calendar year 2021. It details the support given by the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) to assist parliamentary committees in their oversight and scrutiny of the executive in the fields of ex-ante impact assessment, European added value, and ex-post evaluation ...

The pandemic and the negotiations following Brexit have been a serious challenge for the integrity of the single market. Growing world tensions and the military aggression against Ukraine by the Russian Federation are further emphasising the benefits of unity between Member States. Faced with this extremely difficult environment, the EU has responded with unprecedented determination, developing a series of new tools and coordination mechanisms, such as common procurement and fiscal support, to rapidly ...

The pandemic and the negotiations following Brexit have been a serious challenge for the integrity of the single market, in particular regarding free movement. Growing world tensions and the military aggression against Ukraine by the Russian Federation are now further emphasising the benefits of unity between Member States. Faced with this extremely difficult environment, the EU has responded with unprecedented determination, developing a series of tools and coordination mechanisms, such as common ...

Two European Added Value Assessments (EAVAs) studies on Value Added Tax (VAT) and Corporate Income Tax (CIT) for the European Parliament's subcommittee on Tax Matters (FISC), identified the gaps in EU legislation in these areas and evaluated the European added value of various policy options to address these gaps.

Europe is in the midst of a digital revolution that is transforming our approach to work and communication and building significant potential to improve living standards and economic output. With the potential to drastically change the economy and society, digital transformation can bring both promising developments and challenges. There is wide variation in advances in digital transformation both within the European Union and between Member States. To this end, the European Union and its Member ...

Policy-makers are seeking to 'future proof' policies in order to be better prepared for disruptive and unanticipated events. The application of foresight methods such as stress-testing can help achieve this goal. This study introduces a methodology for the European Parliament to stress-test legislation. The method can be integrated into existing law-making and scrutiny processes in the European Parliament. It draws on lessons learnt and recommendations stemming from independent research that encompassed ...

Latvia's National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) sets the package of reforms and investment measures designed by the country in the context of the European Union (EU) response to the crisis triggered by the coronavirus pandemic. In absolute figures, Latvia has decided to use €1 826 millions of grant allocation under the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), while declining to avail of the loan component. These resources represent 0.3 % of the entire RRF, equal to 6 % of the country's gross ...