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The European Central Bank's operational framework is a set of tools it uses to control the amount of money flowing through the economy in order to keep prices stable. The calibration of those tools determines how quickly and strongly the central bank can steer short-term interest rates and ultimately how monetary policy affects economic output and inflation. The operational framework concerns how a monetary decision is implemented, not what the decision is. Over the last 10 years, the ECB has introduced ...

Air pollution is the single most significant environmental health risk in the European Union, causing chronic disease and premature mortality. Some 300 000 premature deaths are caused by fine particulate matter annually in the EU, and the annual economic cost of air pollution is at least €330 billion. Industrial plants are a significant source of air pollution, releasing a wide range of harmful pollutants that can seriously impact on human health and the environment. While previous research has examined ...

This study analyses the absorption rates of the EU Cohesion Policy funds in 2014-2020 over time across funds (ERDF, ESF, CF, and REACT-EU), and across Member States and regions. It also provides a comparison with 2007-2013 absorption. A summary of absorption drivers, obstacles and undertaken solutions is presented based on the relevant literature and the findings of case studies. Conclusions and recommendations on improving the absorption of funds are set out.

According to the Flash Eurobarometer 528 survey, released in December 2023, 81 % of Europeans believe that foreign interference in our democratic systems is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. The current geopolitical tensions highlight the following dilemma: while international cooperation is required to tackle global challenges such as climate change, including the participation of third countries in the EU debate, such activities also carry the risk of foreign interference in EU policymaking ...

The recast Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) has been designed to accelerate building renovation rates, reduce energy consumption, and promote the uptake of renewable energy in buildings. These measures should help the EU reach its target of a net 55 % reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030, as a stepping stone towards achieving climate neutrality by 2050.

Currently, there is no EU-wide legislation specifically on soil, although many policy instruments relevant to soil protection are in place. Under the EU biodiversity strategy for 2030, part of the European Green Deal, the European Commission presented a new EU soil strategy for 2030, with the aim of having all EU soil ecosystems in a healthy condition by 2050. To achieve this objective, on 5 July 2023 it tabled a proposal for a soil monitoring and resilience directive, laying down measures for monitoring ...

European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

EU Fact Sheets 16-05-2024

The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) is one of the main financial instruments of the EUʼs cohesion policy. It was created in 1975 with the purpose of contributing to reducing disparities between the levels of development of European regions and to improving living standards in the least-favoured regions. Particular attention is paid to regions that suffer from severe and permanent natural or demographic disadvantages, such as the northernmost regions, which have very low population densities ...

Digital finance can broadly be defined as financial services and instruments that use or are based on new information and communication technologies (ICT). A wide range of segments of the financial system are therefore concerned, from digital payment services to the new market infrastructures of crypto-assets using distributed ledger technologies (DLT). Policymakers expect digital finance to benefit the financial system – for example, in terms of transaction and settlement costs, as well as financial ...

With no end in sight to the war in Ukraine, the EU has started preparing for the post March 2025 period, when temporary protection for displaced people from Ukraine ends. The Temporary Protection Directive – triggered for the first time ever in March 2022, shortly after Russia invaded Ukraine – has enabled EU Member States to offer assistance and rights to people in need of immediate protection. In principle, once the temporary protection period ends, the general laws on protection and on non-EU ...

This briefing discusses the issue of the 'Europeanisation' of the ballot papers in Member States ahead of the 2024 European Parliament elections. The European Parliament has made two recent attempts at electoral reform seeking to 'Europeanise the European elections. The second of these – still to be agreed with the Council – seeks to align electoral rules across the EU Member States. With the 2024 European elections imminent, it is useful to take a closer look at the rules as they currently stand ...