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The growing importance of global supply chains has fundamentally changed the way the global economy and goods manufacturing are organised. While trade conducted through global supply chains has fallen somewhat as a share of total trade since the 2008-2010 global financial and economic crisis, more than two-thirds of international trade still involves transactions made possible by such chains. The EU is profoundly involved in these production chains, more so than most other countries, and significantly ...

Founded in 1967, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is often compared with the EU. Both organisations brought together former adversaries and successfully resolved tensions through cooperation, helping to bring peace and prosperity to their regions. However, the EU and ASEAN operate in very different ways. ASEAN is a strictly intergovernmental organisation in which decisions are based on consensus. While this approach has made it difficult for south-east Asian countries to achieve ...

In the post-Arab Spring period, Egypt's foreign policy has largely been shaped by the state of affairs in the Middle East and the eastern Mediterranean. Civil wars and unrest have proliferated in the region, creating a knock-on effect felt first by Iraq and then by Syria, Lebanon and Libya. Conflicts in neighbouring countries, often fought by proxies, have affected Cairo's internal political and security interests and influenced Egyptian foreign policy. One such conflict has to do with the persistence ...

The EU is an important market for illicit drugs, both in terms of consumption and production. An estimated 28.9 % of European adults aged 15-65 have used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime, a majority of them being men. Cannabis remains by far the most used drug, followed by cocaine, MDMA (ecstasy or molly) and amphetamines. Illicit drugs have been claiming an increasing number of lives in the EU since 2012, but their impact goes far beyond the harm caused by their use. The illicit drugs ...

In October 2020, Japan's Prime Minister, Suga Yoshihide, declared that by 2050 the country would aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to net zero and to realise a carbon-neutral, decarbonised society. In December, the Cabinet adopted the green growth strategy, an industrial policy aimed at generating a virtuous cycle of economic growth and environmental protection, together with the business community. A €15.4 billion fund is to be created, to promote ecological businesses and innovation to achieve ...

In the context of the multiannual financial framework (MFF) for the 2021-2027 period, the Council has adopted Council Regulation (Euratom) 2021/948 of 27 May 2021 establishing a European instrument for international nuclear safety cooperation complementing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument – Global Europe on the basis of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. Regulation 2021/948 complements, but is separate from, the new Global Europe Instrument ...

As part of its plan for recovery from the coronavirus pandemic, South Korea has launched its own Green New Deal. Announced in July 2020, this initiative will invest €54.3 billion mostly for enabling a shift to green infrastructure, low-carbon and decentralised energy, for spurring innovation in green industry and for creating 659 000 jobs. The plan will also support the commercial development of technology for large-scale carbon capture utilisation and storage (CCUS). In October 2020, South Korea's ...

This Briefing forms part of an EPRS series offering syntheses of the pre-legislative state of play and consultation on key European Commission priorities during the current five-year term. It summarises the state of affairs in the relevant policy field, examines how existing policy is working on the ground, and, where possible, identifies best practice and ideas for the future on the part of governmental organisations at all levels of the EU system of multilevel governance. An EPRS analysis of the ...

Artificial intelligence (AI) policy debates are replete with metaphors. Even the term ‘AI’ relies upon a metaphor for the human quality of intelligence, and its development is regularly described as a ‘race’. While metaphors are useful in highlighting some features of their subject, they are so powerful that it can be difficult to imagine or discuss their subject in other terms. Here, we explore some challenges presented by the central metaphor of ‘intelligence’, examine how AI metaphors emphasise ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, aims to provide background information on the current legal framework of Europol and a legal assessment of the European Commission’s proposal of 9 December 2020 to strengthen Europol’s mandate, divided in thematic blocks. The legal assessment is accompanied by policy recommendations.