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This is the fifth Peace and Security Outlook produced by the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). The series analyses and explains the European Union's contribution to the promotion of peace and security internationally, through its various external policies. The study provides an overview of the issues and current state of play. It looks first at the concept of peace and the changing nature of the geopolitical environment as European security faces the most tangible military threat since ...

The 16th Sustainable Development Goal (SDG16) to 'Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels' represents a new milestone compared with the earlier millennium development goals. While several of its targets (such as peace, corruption-free institutions and freedom from violence) were once seen as prerequisites of sustainable development, the adoption of SDG16 marked ...

Following the division of the Korean peninsula into a southern and a northern part at the end of the Second World War, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was established in its southern part in 1948. The 1950 attack by the communist regime established in the northern part provoked a three-year war, which completely devastated the peninsula. When an armistice was signed in 1953, the Republic of Korea was one of the poorest countries in the world. Its political system was marked by a very strong attitude ...

This analysis looks into the complex relationship between two trends in international governance: an increase in multilateral arrangements between countries in order to govern internationally on the one hand, and a lack of democratic control over the decisions taken by multilateral organisations or conferences on the other. Multilateralism in the modern sense refers to an international mode of operation involving peaceful negotiations and diplomacy, also referred to as a ‘rules-based international ...

2021 Report on Bosnia and Herzegovina

At a Glance 29-06-2022

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), with a population of 3.8 million, became independent from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992, following a referendum that was boycotted by ethnic Serbs. Bosnia and Herzegovina was offered an EU membership perspective during the EU-Western Balkans summit in Thessaloniki (2003), subsequently restated in Sofia (2018), Zagreb (2020), Brdo (2021) and, most recently, Brussels (2022). The Parliament is expected to vote on the European Commission's 2021 annual report on BiH ...

A commemorative bust of John Hume (1937-2020) – awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1998 for his tireless efforts to bring peace to his native Northern Ireland – was unveiled in the European Parliament in Strasbourg on Tuesday 7 June 2022. Having served as an MEP from 1979 to 2004, John Hume understood the European Parliament as a forum in which to raise attention to the problems of Northern Ireland and build European support for resolving the conflict. And it was also – with a measure of seclusion ...

Ending impunity for serious crimes against human rights and humanitarian norms is an important EU and United Nations objective. It is essential in overcoming the legacy of past conflict and building the basis of stable, peaceful societies, as shown by the experience of societies that have taken this path in recent decades. The EU has developed a comprehensive approach to help non-EU countries implement transitional justice.

More than two decades after the United Nations General Assembly adopted its Declaration on Human Rights Defenders (HRDs) to enhance recognition of their role and encourage states to create a more protective environment, many human rights defenders face an increasingly hostile environment, with both repressive governments and some non-state actors, such as economic interest or criminal groups, opposing their work and posing a serious threat. Support for human rights defenders is a long established ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, analyses the evolutions of the modes of governance at EU level. It shows that the so-called Community method has undergone a double evolution towards more intergovernmentalism, on the one hand, and more parliamentarisation, on the other. In particular, in recent years, the first trend has dominated. The study proposes solutions to defend the ...

2021 Report on Turkey

At a Glance 01-06-2022

Turkey's relations with the European Communities/EU date back to 1959, with milestones including the Ankara Association Agreement (1963) and the customs union (1995). Turkey is a key strategic partner of the EU on issues such as migration, security, counter-terrorism and trade. Yet, after democratic backsliding in the country, the Council froze its accession negotiations. Overall EU-Turkey relations have improved slightly in the past year. The Parliament's position on the Commission's 2021 annual ...