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This document presents selected indicators on public finance for the Euro Area Member States and the Euro Area as a whole. For each indicator, it provides a short explanation and the data sources. The final section presents a short overview of the main indicators used by the European and other international institutions to assess debt sustainability.

On 26 July 2012, then ECB President Mario Draghi gave the so-called “whatever it takes” speech, today widely considered as the turnaround point in the European sovereign debt crisis. Shortly after, the European Central Bank (ECB) announced the details of its outright monetary transactions programme (OMT) tool. The speech, together with the OMT announcement, were enough to remove re-denomination risk from sovereign bond markets. OMT was never actually used. 10 years after, in a context of record-high ...

The data in this infographic illustrate the extent of trade between the EU and Russia in the years up to the latter launching its war on Ukraine, as well as the state of Russia’s economy more generally in the same period. This is an update of an infographic originally drafted by Martin Russell and Giulio Sabbati in May 2016.

This study aims to assess how major economies were affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, in particular with respect to economic growth and public debt sustainability. It reviews the heterogeneity of policy measures taken, and aims to identify best practices. A special focus is placed on the euro area and its largest Member States. Principles and practices for ensuring sustained growth and sustainable public finances are discussed.

This document presents selected indicators on public finance for the Euro Area Member States and the Euro Area as a whole. For each indicator, it provides a short explanation and the data sources. The final section presents a short overview of the main indicators used by the European and other international institutions to assess debt sustainability.

This document compares key figures included in the 2022 Draft Budgetary Plans (DBPs), as submitted to the European Commission (EC) by the Euro Area Member States by mid of October 2021, with those of the autumn 2021 forecasts by the EC and the key figures included in the 2021 Stability Programmes (SPs), as submitted by the Euro Area Member States by end of April 2021, with the those of the 2021 spring forecasts by the EC. The EC is expected to adopt its opinions on the 2022 DBPs by end of November ...

The new definition of price stability is a step in the right direction, even though the ECB could have gone further toward the Fed's average inflation targeting. This definition can become most helpful as the central bank navigates new uncertainties. Yet, the review does not deal with some daunting challenges that are already visible. It will need more than a few principles about price stability to deal with such issues as high and rising public debts, financial stability, or climate change. This ...

Differently from past episodes, the European institutions responded to the pandemic shock with an appropriate policy mix.However, the expansionary convergence betweenmonetary and fiscal policies is strengthening the role and thepossible distortionary effects of financial dominance. Due to the consequent growing imbalances in financial markets, Europeaninstitutions could deem it necessary to abandon the currentpolicy approach and to re-attribute the function of the "onlygame in town" to monetary policy ...

Financial Dominance: Not an Immediate Danger

In-Depth Analysis 13-09-2021

Financial dominance describes a situation in which a central bank does not dare to tighten its policy stance as this would threaten the stability of the financial system. The danger of this happening is limited at present. The banking system is well capitalised. Private credit has not expanded much, not even during the COVID-19 recession in most euro area countries – except in France. However, in some countries, the financial sector remains highly exposed to sovereign debt. "Indirect financial dominance ...

Economic Dialogue with Spain

In-Depth Analysis 09-07-2021

This note presents selected information on the current status of the EU economic governance procedures and related relevant information in view of an Economic Dialogue with Nadia Calviño, Minister of Economic Affairs and Digital Transformation in Spain, in the ECON committee of the European Parliament. The invitation for a dialogue is in accordance with the EU economic governance framework. The last exchange of views with the Spanish authorities took place in November 2012, January 2014, November ...