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In this research paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of online advertising markets and we analyse the challenges and opportunities concerning digital advertising. We review the degree to which existing and proposed legislation at EU level addresses the identified problems, and identify potential solutions, with reference to experience from EU Member States and third countries. We conclude with a synthesis and specific policy recommendations, drawing on stakeholder interviews.

This study explores the prospects of aligning citizens' behaviour with the objectives of the European Green Deal in the domains of food consumption and mobility. Creating a climate-neutral and resource-efficient European economy requires a deep transformation of energy, mobility and food systems, as well as a change in production and consumption practices. Such profound change will impact both individuals and society. At the same time, the transition to sustainability will not succeed if people do ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, aims at finding the balance between regulatory measures to tackle disinformation and the protection of freedom of expression. It explores the European legal framework and analyses the roles of all stakeholders in the information landscape. The study offers recommendations to reform the attention-based, data-driven information landscape and regulate ...

The purpose of this briefing is to give a concise overview of disinformation, misinformation and propaganda campaigns about LGBTI+ persons and rights, originating from or being supported and/or multiplied by actors outside the EU. Based on a review of existing literature, the briefing examines the main narratives used, supported and circulated, as well as which actors or group of actors are involved. Where available, information on methods, funding and impacts on European values is provided. The ...

This analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Special Committee on Foreign Interference in all Democratic Processes in the European Union, including Disinformation (INGE), aims to explore the impact of disinformation activity originated or amplified from abroad targeting minorities in the EU over the years 2018-2021. While disinformation has become all-pervasive, it can be considered as yet another tool being used to target vulnerable groups in society. Looking at recent disinformation ...

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a tool of power politics, and an element of state diplomacy. The European Union, however, approaches AI primarily from an economic, social, and regulatory angle. This paper discusses the way that AI impacts the European Union’s geopolitical power, and its relationship with other countries. It presents possible scenarios for how AI may change the international balance of power and recommends ways for the EU and its members to respond.

Artificial intelligence (AI) policy debates are replete with metaphors. Even the term ‘AI’ relies upon a metaphor for the human quality of intelligence, and its development is regularly described as a ‘race’. While metaphors are useful in highlighting some features of their subject, they are so powerful that it can be difficult to imagine or discuss their subject in other terms. Here, we explore some challenges presented by the central metaphor of ‘intelligence’, examine how AI metaphors emphasise ...

Increasing digitalisation means that public administration at EU and national levels has come to rely on digital technologies as a means of carrying out their core functions, a process that has been intensified by the pandemic. This growing reliance on digital technologies, while beneficial, has also increased the risk of cyber-attacks, and key institutions at EU and national level have recently been targeted by cyber-attacks. During the June I plenary session, Members of the European Parliament ...

This paper studies the transformation that Artificial Intelligence (AI) is bringing to the financial sector and how this sector can contribute to developments of AI applications. The study addresses the contribution of AI to a more efficient, open, and inclusive financial sector and the challenges of the AI transformation, and it provides recommendations for policies and regulations of AI and financial services.

The analysis considers evidence on the expected impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on jobs, discusses the potential of AI to create decent jobs and explores the extent to which AI offers opportunities and poses risks to working conditions. The analysis examines current policies at the European Union (EU) and Member State level and recommends some areas for action at the EU level.