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This study forms part of a larger comparative law project which seeks to study the way that the principles of equality and non-discrimination have developed and are demonstrated in a broad range of legal systems around the world. The subject of this study is the principles of equality and non-discrimination in the United States federal legal system. It provides a brief history of the evolution of the principles of equality and non-discrimination developed in United States federal law and major events ...

With an area of nearly 8.5 million km2 and a population of around 212 million (approximately twice the size of the EU with half the population), Brazil is Latin America's largest and most populated country, the biggest democracy (and, despite many observers' concerns over the current state of democracy) one of the freest countries) in the region. It is politically organised as a Federative Republic, formed by the Union, 26 states, 5 570 municipalities and the Federal District (Brasilia). The Brazilian ...

On 10 December 2020, the European Council reached an agreement on the implementation of the regulation linking EU funding to respect for the rule of law. Hungary and Poland, in opposing this new mechanism, had been blocking the Union’s new budget but have now agreed to a compromise. The regulation on the rule of law is part of the package on the multiannual financial framework (MFF) for 2021-2027 and the Next Generation EU recovery instrument. The Parliament is due to vote in December at second reading ...

With the future (1) Rights and Values, (2) Justice and (3) Creative Europe programmes, the European Commission aims to protect better EU rights and values; to develop further a European area of justice; and to support European cultural and creative sectors and audiovisual works under the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposal finds that the impact assessment is substantiated by various evaluations, studies and consultations ...

Economic Dialogue with Croatia

In-Depth Analysis 22-03-2017

This note presents selected information on the current status of the EU economic governance procedures and related relevant information in view of an Economic Dialogue with Zdravko Maric, Croatia’s Minister for Finance, in the ECON committee of the European Parliament. The invitation for a dialogue is in accordance with the EU economic governance framework.

Serbia: Economic situation

At a Glance 17-07-2015

For decades, Serbia’s economy has been in a state of ongoing crisis. It was severely weakened by the long period of international economic sanctions, the civil war, and the damage caused to infrastructure and industry in the 1990s. The international financial crisis and multiple rounds of elections also delayed necessary reforms. In 2014, Serbia started negotiations for EU membership. In economic terms, it aims to build a fully functional market economy, by addressing overdue reforms. Economic recovery ...

Upon request by the JURI Committee, this in-depth analysis compares national rules and practices governing expert reports in the civil law area. All EU Member States expect experts to be competent, independent and impartial. The method of recruitment and rights and obligations of experts still vary. The lack of public registers is an obstacle to their appointment. Only judges can authorise an expert report and generally define the mission, but it is not the case everywhere that they are given the ...

Upon request by the LIBE Committee, this study surveys the US legal system of data protection in the field of federal law enforcement. It reviews two principal sources of US data protection law, the Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution and the Privacy Act of 1974. It also considers the legally prescribed methods of data collection, together with their associated data protection guarantees, in ordinary criminal investigations and national security investigations. Throughout, the study pays special ...

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this note gives an overview of the legislation and legal principles in the Member States concerning the guarantee of payment of child maintenance for the custodial parent by the other parent in case of separation or divorce. This guarantee can be regulated by law and can be put in place by a special body or agency. This note pays particular attention to differences between men and women in their roles for the financial support of children.

This study addresses the development of an EU criminal justice area. By exploring key concepts and features of criminal processes in comparative perspective, it seeks to provide ideas for such an area. Because the situation in the member states is diverse, independent concepts guided by the study findings are explored.