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In the Common Foreign and Security Policy, as well as in several other fields such as enhanced cooperation, certain appointments and treaty revision, the decision-making procedure is different from that prevailing in the ordinary legislative procedure. The dominant feature in these fields is a stronger component of intergovernmental cooperation. The challenge of the public debt crisis has provoked an increased use of such decision-making mechanisms, notably in the framework of European economic governance ...

Following the terrorist attacks of 13 November 2015 in Paris, the 'mutual defence/assistance clause' of the Treaty of Lisbon (article 42.7 TEU) was invoked for the first time by an EU Member State. This tool is a 'reactive', intergovernmental instrument. Devoid of specific implementation arrangements, the text foresees no explicit role for EU institutions. As a result, any Member State invoking the clause maintains a wide margin of manoeuvre for pursuing bilateral discussions with partners, who are ...

This study provides a critical analysis of EGTCs in light of their potential to improve territorial cooperation in Europe. On the basis of a literature review and case studies, the study offers insights into previous achievements of EGTCs, obstacles of their foundation and functioning as well as on their future perspectives. Recommendations have been derived to contribute to the opinion-forming process of the European Parliament about general lessons, future potentials and possibilities for further ...

These two briefing papers mark the end of series of briefing papers supporting the meetings the Special Committee on the Financial, Economic and Social Crisis (CRIS) held in January and February 2011. In preparation for the discussions on the Committee's draft final report these meetings dealt with key questions of the crisis. The first briefing deals with the different ways of decision-making in the area of European Economic Governance; where six proposals are currently under discussion while economic ...

What Form of Constitution for the EU?

In-Depth Analysis 01-12-1999