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When the Nazis grabbed power in Germany, they had clear ideas about what art is. The persecution of Jews allowed them to seize Jewish property, forbid Jews from running art galleries, push them out of their countries to exile, and send them to camps and death. All this enabled some prominent Nazis to start their own art collections. However, most of the looted valuable classical artworks were destined for existing or planned museums. Nazis and their collaborators looted art collections and moved ...

This year marks the 50th anniversary of accession to the former European Communities by Ireland and Denmark. The path to membership was not smooth for either country, with their first two applications made in 1961 and 1967, together with the United Kingdom, effectively blocked by French opposition. With a change of government in France, the six members of the European Communities reaffirmed their agreement to the enlargement of the Communities, and negotiations on membership began with Denmark, Ireland ...

Yiddish is a language once spoken by Jews in an area spreading from Alsace to the Urals, influenced by and influencing local languages and cultures. It neared extinction in the 20th century when it lost the majority of its speakers, mostly – but not only – through the Holocaust. Yiddish is part of European folk culture, contributing to the works of great writers and musicians and broadening European culture more generally. Successive waves of Jewish migration provoked by poverty, persecution, pogroms ...

The revision of the Energy Taxation Directive (ETD) is part of the 'fit for 55' package. The current ETD (Directive 2003/96/EC) is outdated and out of sync with the EU's climate and energy objectives. It favours the use of fossil fuels and no longer contributes to the proper functioning of the internal market. The aspects of energy taxation requiring most urgent revision are the level and structure of minimum rates, replacement of the volume-based approach to energy taxation with one based on energy ...

The IA is based on extensive internal and external research and modelling and covers a lot of ground relating to a variety of potential impacts, both in the main text and the annexes. It is also transparent with regard to the limitations and uncertainties of the analysis. While not all aspects could be assessed in depth, in the interest of proportionality, the IA considers the relevant impacts of the retained options, with a focus on the industrial sectors that were selected for coverage; it addresses ...

The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in March 2020 presented parliamentary institutions around the world with a new and unprecedented scenario. Parliamentary rules of procedure in representative democracies are commonly built upon the principles of pluralism, deliberation and transparency, aiming to provide an arena in which representatives of the people have the opportunity to publicly confront each other's points of view in a free and fair setting. It is, therefore, safe to say that ordinary ...

Spain’s National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) is one of the biggest financed by the Next Generation EU (NGEU) recovery instrument. It contains the largest amount, in terms of grants, under the unprecedented EU response to the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. For the time being, Spain has decided to use its national allocation for grants under the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF). The proposed and approved amount (€69.5 billion) represents 9.6 % of the entire RRF, equal to 5.6 ...

In absolute figures, Italy’s Recovery and Resilience Plan is the largest national plan under the unprecedented EU response to the crisis triggered by the coronavirus pandemic. Italy has decided to use its entire national allocation under the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), including its loan component. Totalling €191.5 billion, these resources represent 26.5 % of the entire RRF, equal to 10.7 % of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019 (the RRF being 5.2 % of EU-27 GDP in 2019 ...

Since 2008, when the European Union introduced elaborate sustainable development provisions into its agreement with the Cariforum group of states, provisions on labour rights and the environment have become a central part of most of the EU's subsequent trade agreements, the one with South Korea (2011) being the first to contain a dedicated chapter. These provisions continue to evolve: for instance, recent agreements with some of the EU's developed partners, such as Canada and the United Kingdom, ...

Right to repair

Briefing 12-01-2022

The European Commission has announced the establishment of a 'right to repair', with a view of saving costs for consumers and facilitating the development of a circular economy. The right to repair may refer to different issues and situations: repair during the legal guarantee, the right to repair after the legal guarantee has expired, and the right for consumers to repair products themselves. Rates of repair depend on the type of a product, with the cost of repair being the most important reason ...