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The First Treaties

01-10-2017

The disastrous effects of the Second World War and the constant threat of an East-West confrontation meant that the Franco-German reconciliation had become a top priority. The decision to pool the coal and steel industries of six European countries, brought into force by the Treaty of Paris in 1951, marked the first step towards European integration. The Treaties of Rome of 1957 strengthened the foundations of this integration and the notion of a common future for the six European countries involved ...

The disastrous effects of the Second World War and the constant threat of an East-West confrontation meant that the Franco-German reconciliation had become a top priority. The decision to pool the coal and steel industries of six European countries, brought into force by the Treaty of Paris in 1951, marked the first step towards European integration. The Treaties of Rome of 1957 strengthened the foundations of this integration and the notion of a common future for the six European countries involved.

European Citizens’ Initiative

01-10-2017

The European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI) is an important instrument of participatory democracy in the European Union, allowing one million EU citizens residing in at least one quarter of the Member States to invite the Commission to submit a proposal for a legal act to implement the EU Treaties. Since the application of Regulation (EU) No 211/2011 establishing detailed procedures and conditions for the ECI, three initiatives have been successfully submitted to the Commission.

The European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI) is an important instrument of participatory democracy in the European Union, allowing one million EU citizens residing in at least one quarter of the Member States to invite the Commission to submit a proposal for a legal act to implement the EU Treaties. Since the application of Regulation (EU) No 211/2011 establishing detailed procedures and conditions for the ECI, three initiatives have been successfully submitted to the Commission.

The Treaty of Lisbon

01-06-2017

This fact sheet presents the background and essential provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon. The objective is to provide a historical context for the emergence of this latest fundamental EU text from the ones which came before it. The specific provisions (with article references) and their effects on European Union policies are explained in more detail in the fact sheets dealing with particular policies and issues.

This fact sheet presents the background and essential provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon. The objective is to provide a historical context for the emergence of this latest fundamental EU text from the ones which came before it. The specific provisions (with article references) and their effects on European Union policies are explained in more detail in the fact sheets dealing with particular policies and issues.

The European Parliament: Powers

01-06-2017

Parliament asserts its institutional role in European policy-making by exercising its various functions. Parliament’s participation in the legislative process, its budgetary and control powers, its involvement in treaty revision and its right to intervene before the European Court of Justice enable it to uphold democratic principles at European level.

Parliament asserts its institutional role in European policy-making by exercising its various functions. Parliament’s participation in the legislative process, its budgetary and control powers, its involvement in treaty revision and its right to intervene before the European Court of Justice enable it to uphold democratic principles at European level.

Developments up to the Single European Act

01-04-2017

The main developments of the early Treaties are related to the creation of the Community’s own resources, the reinforcement of the budgetary powers of Parliament, election of MEPs by direct universal suffrage and the setting-up of the European Monetary System. The entry into force of the Single European Act in 1986, substantially altering the Treaty of Rome, bolstered the notion of integration by creating a large internal market.

The main developments of the early Treaties are related to the creation of the Community’s own resources, the reinforcement of the budgetary powers of Parliament, election of MEPs by direct universal suffrage and the setting-up of the European Monetary System. The entry into force of the Single European Act in 1986, substantially altering the Treaty of Rome, bolstered the notion of integration by creating a large internal market.

The Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties

01-04-2017

The Maastricht Treaty altered the former European treaties and created a European Union based on three pillars: the European Communities, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs (JHI). With a view to the enlargement of the Union, the Amsterdam Treaty made the adjustments needed to enable the Union to function more efficiently and democratically.

The Maastricht Treaty altered the former European treaties and created a European Union based on three pillars: the European Communities, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs (JHI). With a view to the enlargement of the Union, the Amsterdam Treaty made the adjustments needed to enable the Union to function more efficiently and democratically.

The Treaty of Nice and the Convention on the Future of Europe

01-04-2017

The Treaty of Nice prepared the European Union only partially for the important enlargements to the east and south on 1 May 2004 and 1 January 2007. Hence, following up on the questions raised in the Laeken Declaration, the European Convention made an effort to produce a new legal base for the Union in the form of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. Following ‘no’ votes in referendums in two Member States, that treaty was not ratified.

The Treaty of Nice prepared the European Union only partially for the important enlargements to the east and south on 1 May 2004 and 1 January 2007. Hence, following up on the questions raised in the Laeken Declaration, the European Convention made an effort to produce a new legal base for the Union in the form of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. Following ‘no’ votes in referendums in two Member States, that treaty was not ratified.

The European Council

01-04-2017

The European Council, formed by the Heads of State or Government of the Member States, provides the necessary impetus for the development of the European Union and sets out the general political guidelines. The Commission President is also a non-voting member. The President of the European Parliament addresses the European Council at the beginning of its meetings. The Lisbon Treaty established the European Council as an institution of the Union and endowed it with a long-term presidency.

The European Council, formed by the Heads of State or Government of the Member States, provides the necessary impetus for the development of the European Union and sets out the general political guidelines. The Commission President is also a non-voting member. The President of the European Parliament addresses the European Council at the beginning of its meetings. The Lisbon Treaty established the European Council as an institution of the Union and endowed it with a long-term presidency.

The Council of the European Union

01-04-2017

Together with the European Parliament, the Council is the institution that adopts EU legislation through regulations and directives and prepares decisions and non-binding recommendations. In its areas of competence, it takes its decisions by a simple majority, a qualified majority or unanimously according to the legal basis of the act requiring its approval.

Together with the European Parliament, the Council is the institution that adopts EU legislation through regulations and directives and prepares decisions and non-binding recommendations. In its areas of competence, it takes its decisions by a simple majority, a qualified majority or unanimously according to the legal basis of the act requiring its approval.

The European Commission

01-04-2017

The Commission is the EU institution that has the monopoly on legislative initiative and important executive powers in policies such as competition and external trade. It is the principal executive body of the European Union and it is formed by a College of members composed of one Commissioner per Member State. It also chairs the committees responsible for the implementation of EU law. The former comitology system has been replaced by new legal instruments, namely implementing and delegated acts. ...

The Commission is the EU institution that has the monopoly on legislative initiative and important executive powers in policies such as competition and external trade. It is the principal executive body of the European Union and it is formed by a College of members composed of one Commissioner per Member State. It also chairs the committees responsible for the implementation of EU law. The former comitology system has been replaced by new legal instruments, namely implementing and delegated acts.

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