804

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What if artificial intelligence in medical imaging could accelerate Covid-19 treatment?

21-12-2020

Thermal imaging cameras are currently being installed in office buildings, hospitals, shopping malls, schools and airports as a means of detecting people with fever-like symptoms. Given that these cameras are not necessarily designed to operate as medical devices, there are questions about their suitability in the context of the current pandemic. This note provides an overview of the use of thermal imaging empowered with artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities, its suitability in the context of ...

Thermal imaging cameras are currently being installed in office buildings, hospitals, shopping malls, schools and airports as a means of detecting people with fever-like symptoms. Given that these cameras are not necessarily designed to operate as medical devices, there are questions about their suitability in the context of the current pandemic. This note provides an overview of the use of thermal imaging empowered with artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities, its suitability in the context of the current pandemic and the core technical limitations of this technology. The main legal responses and ethical concerns related to the use of AI in the context of thermal imaging at entry points to identify and triage people who may have elevated temperatures are also examined.

The Effectiveness of Conflict of Interest Policies in the EU- Member States

17-12-2020

This comparative study - commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs - analyses the effectiveness of relevant rules, policies and practices within Member States regarding conflict of interest for top political appointment (Head of Government, Ministers and other high ranking officials). The research highlights the theoretical and practical aspects of the notion of conflict of interest, giving some policy recommendations

This comparative study - commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs - analyses the effectiveness of relevant rules, policies and practices within Member States regarding conflict of interest for top political appointment (Head of Government, Ministers and other high ranking officials). The research highlights the theoretical and practical aspects of the notion of conflict of interest, giving some policy recommendations

External author

Christoph DEMMKE; Maros PAULINI; Jari AUTIONIEMI; Florian LENNER

Air services: Revision of Regulation (EC) No 1008/2008

15-12-2020

New rules regulating the air services are expected by the end of year. The basic legal act organising the internal EU aviation market, namely Regulation (EC) No 1008/2008, is expected to be revised by the European Commission, after being evaluated in 2019.

New rules regulating the air services are expected by the end of year. The basic legal act organising the internal EU aviation market, namely Regulation (EC) No 1008/2008, is expected to be revised by the European Commission, after being evaluated in 2019.

Older people in the European Union's rural areas: Issues and challenges

10-12-2020

One of the key demographic challenges facing rural areas is the ageing population, not only among farmers but also among the rural population in general. This paper examines the demographic profile of older people in the EU's rural areas, and presents a series of issues pertaining to the situation facing older people. Topics covered include health and access to services, issues of social isolation and loneliness, the role of technology and lifelong learning, access to social care, and the impact ...

One of the key demographic challenges facing rural areas is the ageing population, not only among farmers but also among the rural population in general. This paper examines the demographic profile of older people in the EU's rural areas, and presents a series of issues pertaining to the situation facing older people. Topics covered include health and access to services, issues of social isolation and loneliness, the role of technology and lifelong learning, access to social care, and the impact of climate change. The impact of the coronavirus pandemic has brought the health status of older people more sharply into focus and highlighted their vulnerability. The views of a number of stakeholders are summarised along with the measures available under the EU's rural development policy and other structural funds.

States of emergency in response to the coronavirus crisis: Normative response and parliamentary oversight in EU Member States during the first wave of the pandemic

04-12-2020

This study examines the normative response of the 27 EU Member States during the first phase of the Covid 19 pandemic (March to mid June 2020) and parliamentary oversight over the measures adopted. The study reveals that Member States' normative responses to the pandemic were generally efficient, as very few of them were not preventively equipped with a set of rules enabling the national authorities to adopt the containment measures needed to address the first peak of the health crisis, and because ...

This study examines the normative response of the 27 EU Member States during the first phase of the Covid 19 pandemic (March to mid June 2020) and parliamentary oversight over the measures adopted. The study reveals that Member States' normative responses to the pandemic were generally efficient, as very few of them were not preventively equipped with a set of rules enabling the national authorities to adopt the containment measures needed to address the first peak of the health crisis, and because the Member States lacking those normative tools were able to adopt the necessary empowering legislative acts quickly. The study also reveals that all EU national parliaments played some role in the management of the pandemic, either through the supervision of the measures adopted by the executive to contain the spread of the virus or through the exercise of their ordinary legislative and budgetary powers to provide the government with the normative tools needed to address the pandemic.

Los principios de igualdad y no discriminación, una perspectiva de Derecho Comparado - Perú

02-12-2020

Este documento se integra en una serie de estudios que, desde una perspectiva de Derecho Comparado, tienen como objeto analizar los principios de igualdad y de no discriminación en diferentes Estados. Tras la explicación de la normativa y la jurisprudencia de aplicación, se examinan el contenido, los límites y la posible evolución de dichos principios. El presente estudio tiene por objeto el caso del Perú. Las páginas describen, en lo relativo al Perú, y con relación al objeto de estudio, una breve ...

Este documento se integra en una serie de estudios que, desde una perspectiva de Derecho Comparado, tienen como objeto analizar los principios de igualdad y de no discriminación en diferentes Estados. Tras la explicación de la normativa y la jurisprudencia de aplicación, se examinan el contenido, los límites y la posible evolución de dichos principios. El presente estudio tiene por objeto el caso del Perú. Las páginas describen, en lo relativo al Perú, y con relación al objeto de estudio, una breve reseña sobre la evolución del concepto igualdad (entendida primero únicamente en un sentido formal) y la progresiva incorporación del principio de no discriminación, para luego pasar a, siquiera en grandes rasgos, describir lo hecho por el Tribunal Constitucional peruano al respecto, efectuando una evaluación crítica de lo avanzado hasta hoy, y poniendo especial énfasis en anotar los retos a enfrentar.

External author

Excmo. Sr. Dr. D. Eloy ESPINOSA-SALDAÑA BARRERA

The principles of equality and non-discrimination, a comparative law perspective - Canada

26-11-2020

This document is part of a series of studies, which, in a comparative law perspective, seek to present the principles of equality and non-discrimination in different States. This study examines sources of equality law and judicial interpretation of the principles of equality and non-discrimination in Canada. Contemporary equality law was a response to histories of both public and private discrimination in Canada. Statutory protections for equality and non-discrimination emerged in the post World ...

This document is part of a series of studies, which, in a comparative law perspective, seek to present the principles of equality and non-discrimination in different States. This study examines sources of equality law and judicial interpretation of the principles of equality and non-discrimination in Canada. Contemporary equality law was a response to histories of both public and private discrimination in Canada. Statutory protections for equality and non-discrimination emerged in the post World War II era and were expanded and consolidated in the 1960s and 1970s. Constitutional reforms in the 1980s enshrined equality in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Since then, equality jurisprudence has expanded the interpretation of discrimination to include direct, indirect and systemic discrimination. Courts have rejected formal equality to embrace expansive notions of substantive equality in interpreting constitutional protections. Even with such strides over the last decades towards robust equality and non-discrimination principles and protections, just and effective implementation of their promise remains a pressing challenge for Canada.

External author

Professor Colleen SHEPPARD, Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, McGill University

European Commission work programme 2021

25-11-2020

This briefing, which focuses on legislative initiatives only, is intended as a background overview for parliamentary committees (and their respective secretariats) which are planning their activities in relation to the European Commission work programme for 2021 (CWP 2021), adopted on 19 October 2020. It provides an overview of the CWP 2021 with regard to its structure and key aspects, and includes information on two types of EPRS publications that might be of interest to the relevant committees ...

This briefing, which focuses on legislative initiatives only, is intended as a background overview for parliamentary committees (and their respective secretariats) which are planning their activities in relation to the European Commission work programme for 2021 (CWP 2021), adopted on 19 October 2020. It provides an overview of the CWP 2021 with regard to its structure and key aspects, and includes information on two types of EPRS publications that might be of interest to the relevant committees in their consideration of the upcoming legislative proposals: initial appraisals of Commission impact assessments (provided by the Ex-Ante Impact Assessment Unit, IMPA) and implementation appraisals (provided by the Ex-Post Evaluation Unit, EVAL). The annex to the briefing provides, inter alia, a tentative indication of the committee concerned by the 82 legislative files included in the CWP 2021.

Airport charges: Revision of Directive 2009/12/EC

18-11-2020

The Airports Charges Directive 2009/12/EC is the main legislative act regulating the essential features of airport charges. Airport charges are the charges that the airlines pay to the airports for using their infrastructure and facilities. The two main issues that the directive aims to tackle are the risk that some airports might set prices and terms that are not in line with a competitive market, and the diverging and non-transparent charging systems in the Member States. If the evaluation of the ...

The Airports Charges Directive 2009/12/EC is the main legislative act regulating the essential features of airport charges. Airport charges are the charges that the airlines pay to the airports for using their infrastructure and facilities. The two main issues that the directive aims to tackle are the risk that some airports might set prices and terms that are not in line with a competitive market, and the diverging and non-transparent charging systems in the Member States. If the evaluation of the directive revealed positive effects of the regulation, it also identified problematic issues, which hampers the full achievement of its objectives. The European Commission is expected to submit a new proposal by the end of the year.

Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung, eine rechtsvergleichende Perspektive - Deutschland

26-10-2020

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleich-heit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschrif-ten und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall Deutschland zum Gegenstand. Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und Nichtdiskriminierung sind in Deutschland ...

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleich-heit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschrif-ten und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall Deutschland zum Gegenstand. Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und Nichtdiskriminierung sind in Deutschland am wirk-mächtigsten in Art. 3 Grundgesetz verankert: als Grundrechte in Form des sog. allgemei-nen Gleichheitssatzes (Absatz 1) und der beiden speziellen Garantien (Absätze 2 und 3). Das Bundesverfassungsgericht hat diese Rechte schrittweise konkretisiert und durchge-setzt; inzwischen gestalten viele Gesetze die Gleichheitssätze in verfassungskonformer Weise aus, so für das Privatrecht das Allgemeine Gleichbehandlungsgesetz.

External author

Prof. Dr. Franz REIMER, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

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