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Publicado en 04-03-2021

Women in front of and behind the camera: Still struggling with inequality

04-03-2021

Even though the past 50 years have seen a significant advance in women's living conditions and status in society as a whole, their depiction on screen has continued to reflect patriarchal stereotypes. Accordingly, female characters are in general younger than their male counterparts and more likely to be reduced to the role of wife, mother or girlfriend. One way to help guarantee that stories and perspectives portrayed on the screen are more true to life would be to encourage and support the presence ...

Even though the past 50 years have seen a significant advance in women's living conditions and status in society as a whole, their depiction on screen has continued to reflect patriarchal stereotypes. Accordingly, female characters are in general younger than their male counterparts and more likely to be reduced to the role of wife, mother or girlfriend. One way to help guarantee that stories and perspectives portrayed on the screen are more true to life would be to encourage and support the presence of women in key positions in the film industry. However, even though almost as many female (44 %) as male (56 %) directors graduate from film schools, the average proportion of female directors in the industry is just around 20 %, with results varying from 5 % in Latvia to 30 % in Sweden, thus leaving gender equality still a long way off.

Revising the fisheries control system

04-03-2021

During the March I part-session, Parliament is expected to vote on the European Commission's proposal to revise the fisheries control system, centred on the amendment of the Control Regulation 1224/2009. The Committee on Fisheries has adopted a report that supports the proposal on major aspects, such as tracking of all EU fishing vessels, reporting of all catches, monitoring of recreational fisheries and improving traceability along the supply chain for all fishery and aquaculture products, whether ...

During the March I part-session, Parliament is expected to vote on the European Commission's proposal to revise the fisheries control system, centred on the amendment of the Control Regulation 1224/2009. The Committee on Fisheries has adopted a report that supports the proposal on major aspects, such as tracking of all EU fishing vessels, reporting of all catches, monitoring of recreational fisheries and improving traceability along the supply chain for all fishery and aquaculture products, whether from EU fisheries or imported. The report also backs the proposal on harmonising sanctions for infringements of fisheries rules across the EU, and requires the creation of a 'Union register' of infringements centralising Member States' information. In the same line of harmonised control, the report introduces uniform formats throughout the EU for a wide range of documents. The PECH report departs from the proposal as regards the mandatory use of on-board CCTV cameras to control the landing obligation, only allowing it on a voluntary basis (if associated with incentives such as quota increases), or as an accompanying sanction for vessels that commit repeated infringements. The report amends the proposal to exempt vessels under 10 m in length from the obligation to keep electronic logbooks, and to introduce derogations to the weighing of fishery products upon landing. It increases the margin of tolerance in estimates recorded in the fishing logbook, in particular for small pelagic and tuna species. It also limits the continuous monitoring of the engine power to vessels exceeding 221 kilowatts that operate under fishing effort regimes.

WTO rules: Compatibility with human and labour rights

04-03-2021

Supply chains are increasingly international, but many of EU's trade partners fail to meet both the labour standards of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and international human rights norms. EU trade policy is designed to ensure that economic development complies with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules, while upholding human rights and high labour standards. WTO rules require members to comply with a set of basic free trading principles, in particular national treatment and most-favoured ...

Supply chains are increasingly international, but many of EU's trade partners fail to meet both the labour standards of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and international human rights norms. EU trade policy is designed to ensure that economic development complies with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules, while upholding human rights and high labour standards. WTO rules require members to comply with a set of basic free trading principles, in particular national treatment and most-favoured nation status. When a member wishes to take a trade-affecting measure that departs from WTO rules, they can justify the action on the basis of general exceptions. Whereas there is no specific provision in the WTO rules on human rights, according to case law and precedents, the general exception can sometimes allow trade-restricting measures based on human rights concerns. Yet, the open nature of WTO-rules means that members must devise trade-restrictive measures carefully, and that the dispute settlement process can involve complex legal interpretation if litigation arises. The uncertainty surrounding the compatibility between WTO rules and human and labour rights is attracting growing attention, generating calls for WTO reform. Another WTO framework that has been the subject of a long-standing debate on whether its flexibility provisions are sufficient to protect human rights and in particular the right to health is the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). In the context of the coronavirus pandemic, the debate has refocused on the need to waive some TRIPS provisions. This briefing provides an overview of complex issues relating to human rights and WTO rules. It does not argue for a specific interpretation or position, and does not attempt to bring final clarification on aspects still disputed among legal experts.

Reform of the Comitology Regulation

04-03-2021

On 14 February 2017, the European Commission adopted a proposal amending Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 (the 'Comitology Regulation') in order to increase the transparency and accountability of the decision-making process leading to the adoption of implementing acts. The main elements of the proposal include amending the voting rules for the Appeal Committee (AC) in order to reduce the risk of a no opinion scenario and to clarify the positions of the Member States, providing for the possibility of a ...

On 14 February 2017, the European Commission adopted a proposal amending Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 (the 'Comitology Regulation') in order to increase the transparency and accountability of the decision-making process leading to the adoption of implementing acts. The main elements of the proposal include amending the voting rules for the Appeal Committee (AC) in order to reduce the risk of a no opinion scenario and to clarify the positions of the Member States, providing for the possibility of a further referral to the AC at ministerial level if no opinion is delivered, and increasing the transparency of the comitology procedure by making public the votes of the Member States' representatives in the AC. Following the opinions of a number of committees, submitted in the previous and current terms, on 12 October 2020, Parliament's Committee on Legal Affairs adopted its report. It proposes to oblige Member States' representatives to give reasons for their vote, abstention or for any absence from the vote, and where particularly sensitive areas are concerned (consumer protection, health and safety of humans, animals or plants, or the environment), also case-specific detailed reasons for their vote or abstention. Other amendments concern better accessibility to the comitology register to increase transparency for citizens, and empowering Parliament and Council to call on the Commission to submit a proposal amending the basic act, where they deem it appropriate to review the implementing powers granted to the Commission. A partial first-reading report was adopted on 17 December 2020 in plenary and the file was referred back to the Legal Affairs Committee for interinstitutional negotiations. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Unfair terms in Swiss franc loans: Overview of European Court of Justice case law

04-03-2021

In the first decade of the 21st century, loans denominated in or indexed to foreign currencies, in particular the Swiss franc, became very popular in a number of EU Member States, including Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Austria, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia, and also in two non-EU countries, Montenegro and Serbia. For a certain period, in some Member States these loans became the most popular type of loan issued to consumers. By pegging loans to a stable foreign currency, banks could lend more money ...

In the first decade of the 21st century, loans denominated in or indexed to foreign currencies, in particular the Swiss franc, became very popular in a number of EU Member States, including Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Austria, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia, and also in two non-EU countries, Montenegro and Serbia. For a certain period, in some Member States these loans became the most popular type of loan issued to consumers. By pegging loans to a stable foreign currency, banks could lend more money to the same consumer by virtue of interest rates being lower than those for the same type of loan expressed in the national currency. However, when, as a result of the global economic crisis, the rate of exchange between the Swiss franc and these national currencies (zlotys, forints, kunas, etc.) soared, consumers found themselves trapped. Often, they had to repay as much as twice the value of the loan taken, and could not escape the unfavourable contract by simply selling the property they had bought, as this would cover only a fraction of their debt. While certain Member States implemented mechanisms aimed at protecting consumers and bringing the situation under control, the case law of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), based on dynamic interpretation of the Unfair Terms Directive (93/13), has proved to be a significant factor in securing effective consumer protection. This briefing explains the legal significance of the relevant ECJ judgments, against the backdrop of the Swiss franc loan situation in Europe.

Economic Dialogue with the other EU Institutions under the European Semester Cycles during the 9th legislative term State of play - March 2021

04-03-2021

This document provides an overview of Economic Dialogues with the other institutions of the European Union that has taken place in the competent Committee(s) of the European Parliament since September 2019 under the European Semester Cycles. It also includes an overview of the respective legal bases for these dialogues. For an overview Economic Dialogues between January 2014 and January 2019, please see separate document. For an overview of Economic Dialogues with EU Member States, please see separate ...

This document provides an overview of Economic Dialogues with the other institutions of the European Union that has taken place in the competent Committee(s) of the European Parliament since September 2019 under the European Semester Cycles. It also includes an overview of the respective legal bases for these dialogues. For an overview Economic Dialogues between January 2014 and January 2019, please see separate document. For an overview of Economic Dialogues with EU Member States, please see separate document.

When and how to unwind COVID-support measures to the banking system?

04-03-2021

This paper examines regulatory measures and supervisory practices that have supported public guarantee schemes and moratoria in euro-area countries. The focus is on flexibility shown with regard to default classifications, accounting practices and the treatment of non-performing loans. The paper identifies a number of undesirable effects and examines how soon such policies can be normalised. This document was provided by the Economic Governance Support Unit at the request of the ECON Committee.

This paper examines regulatory measures and supervisory practices that have supported public guarantee schemes and moratoria in euro-area countries. The focus is on flexibility shown with regard to default classifications, accounting practices and the treatment of non-performing loans. The paper identifies a number of undesirable effects and examines how soon such policies can be normalised. This document was provided by the Economic Governance Support Unit at the request of the ECON Committee.

Autor externo

A. Lehmann, Bruegel

Responsible private funding of litigation

04-03-2021

A responsible TPLF regulatory framework should aim at lowering costs, simplifying unnecessary procedures, increasing the predictability of costs, and delivering efficient services at costs that are proportionate to the amounts in dispute. We explored additional effective safeguards and a number of policy options regarding the contractual, ethical and procedural aspects of TPLF. We then estimated the European added value (EAV) for two alternatives, namely a moderate and a strong regulatory approach ...

A responsible TPLF regulatory framework should aim at lowering costs, simplifying unnecessary procedures, increasing the predictability of costs, and delivering efficient services at costs that are proportionate to the amounts in dispute. We explored additional effective safeguards and a number of policy options regarding the contractual, ethical and procedural aspects of TPLF. We then estimated the European added value (EAV) for two alternatives, namely a moderate and a strong regulatory approach scenario using a standard benefits-costs analytical conceptual framework.

Non-performing Loans - New risks and policies? - What factors drive the performance of national asset

04-03-2021

In this study we examine the experience of Member States with Asset Management Companies (AMCs) to understand their opportunities and risks, and deeper determinants of performance, and draw some lessons for exploring potential solutions at an EU level. This document was provided/prepared by Economic Governance Support Unit at the request of the ECON Committee.

In this study we examine the experience of Member States with Asset Management Companies (AMCs) to understand their opportunities and risks, and deeper determinants of performance, and draw some lessons for exploring potential solutions at an EU level. This document was provided/prepared by Economic Governance Support Unit at the request of the ECON Committee.

Autor externo

D. Ramos, M. Lamandini

Recalibrated Monetary Policy Instruments to Address the Economic Fallout from COVID-19

04-03-2021

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the severe recession it has produced, the ECB Governing Council has adopted, since March 2020, an extraordinary set of monetary policy measures aimed at preserving favourable financing conditions and safeguarding price stability in the face of high uncertainty. The monetary policy instruments were recalibrated in the course of 2020, lastly in December 2020. Four papers were prepared by the ECON Committee’s Monetary Expert Panel, discussing the effectiveness ...

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the severe recession it has produced, the ECB Governing Council has adopted, since March 2020, an extraordinary set of monetary policy measures aimed at preserving favourable financing conditions and safeguarding price stability in the face of high uncertainty. The monetary policy instruments were recalibrated in the course of 2020, lastly in December 2020. Four papers were prepared by the ECON Committee’s Monetary Expert Panel, discussing the effectiveness and side effects of the monetary policy instruments employed as well as interactions between them. This publication is prepared by Policy Department A for the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON), ahead of the Monetary Dialogue with ECB President Lagarde on 18 March 2021.

Autor externo

Luigi BONATTI, Andrea FRACASSO, Roberto TAMBORINI, Marek DABROWSKI, Christophe BLOT, Caroline BOZOU, Jérôme CREEL, Pierpaolo BENIGNO, Paolo CANOFARI, Giovanni DI BARTOLOMEO, Marcello MESSORI

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ICM International Women's Day 2021
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