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This document provides an overview of key developments under the preventive and corrective arms of the Stability and Growth Pact on the basis of the latest Commission and Council decisions and recommendations in the framework of the Stability and Growth Pact and the latest European Commission economic forecasts. It also includes a section on the on-going review of the EU fiscal framework. This document is regularly updated.

This paper was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) ahead of the Monetary Dialogue with the ECB President on 26 September 2022.

This paper was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) ahead of the Monetary Dialogue with the ECB President on 26 September 2022.

This briefing follows up the commitments made by the commissioner since 2020.

Understanding inflation dynamics requires an understanding of the underlying concept and how it is measured. Inflation is defined as a process of continuously rising prices and falling purchasing power. In other words, a general and broad-based increase in the price of goods and services over an extended period. The main objective of central banks is to keep prices stable, to preserve the integrity and purchasing power of people's money. The most common inflation indicator measures the average change ...

This study evaluates the European Parliament's accountability instruments in the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) in light of their comparability to existing arrangements in monetary policy. The analysis shows that the Inter-Institutional Agreement with the European Central Bank in banking supervision did not result in a significantly different accountability relationship than the one between the two institutions in monetary policy. The results are based on interviews with Members of the European ...

On 26 July 2012, then ECB President Mario Draghi gave the so-called “whatever it takes” speech, today widely considered as the turnaround point in the European sovereign debt crisis. Shortly after, the European Central Bank (ECB) announced the details of its outright monetary transactions programme (OMT) tool. The speech, together with the OMT announcement, were enough to remove re-denomination risk from sovereign bond markets. OMT was never actually used. 10 years after, in a context of record-high ...

On 24 February 2022, Russia launched an invasion of Ukraine. The war itself, as well as related sanctions and countersanctions are expected to have a significant impact on the euro area economy. This paper summarises the recent monetary policy decisions of the European Central Bank (ECB)'s Governing Council and outlines some policy issues and challenges that might arise in the context of the war, related to price stability, financial stability, climate and energy policies, ECB/Eurosystem staff projections ...

A new database on exceptional fiscal spending adopted during the COVID-19 crisis is presented for 14 EU countries. The composition and evolution of fiscal measures differ across countries. We analyse (a) whether national economic characteristics determined the type of fiscal response adopted and (b) how the different fiscal measures affected the macroeconomic outcomes and consumer confidence. We assess whether measures have been sufficiently targeted and make recommendations as to which adjustments ...

We examine the role of inflation expectations in conditioning monetary policy, addressing three of its facets. The first concerns the channels through which inflation expectations impinge upon actual inflation, and their policy implications. The second facet regards the technical and empirical issues involved in keeping track of inflation expectations for monetary policy purposes. The final facet is an assessment of inflation expectations vis-à-vis the current upsurge of inflation, wondering whether ...