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Xi-Jinping won a third term in China's top job, as secretary general of the Communist Party, at its Congress in October, solidifying his grip on power over a country which has become increasingly autocratic and abrasive in its foreign policy during his 10-year reign to date. Xi's re-election for a third term broke with China's recent tradition of leaders being replaced after two terms, in a sign he will yield power in a manner reminiscent of communist China's founder Mao Zedong. His new reign begins ...

Brazil was responsible for 2.2 % of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in 2019. Its per capita emissions of 5 tonnes CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) were below both EU and world levels. This is one of a series of EPRS briefings on major economies outside the European Union, looking at their climate policies in the run-up to the COP27 United Nations climate change conference of parties being held in November 2022.

China was responsible for more than a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2019. China's per-capita emissions of 9 tonnes CO2 equivalent in 2019 were well above EU levels and far above the global average. This is one of a series of EPRS briefings on major economies outside the European Union, looking at their climate policies in the run-up to the COP27 United Nations climate change conference of parties being held in November 2022.

The Arab Republic of Egypt was responsible for 0.73 % of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2019. Its per capita emissions of 3.5 tonnes CO2 equivalent were below both EU level and the world average. This is one of a series of EPRS briefings on major economies outside the European Union, looking at their climate policies in the run-up to the COP27 United Nations climate change conference of parties being held in November 2022.

In 2019, India accounted for 7 % of global GHG emissions; its per capita emissions level of 2.48 tonnes CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) was well below the global average and only a third of the EU per capita level. This is one of a series of EPRS briefings on major economies outside the European Union, looking at their climate policies in the run-up to the COP27 United Nations climate change conference of parties being held in November 2022.

The United Kingdom (UK) was responsible for 0.9 % of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2019. UK per capita emissions of 6.6 tonnes CO2 equivalent were below EU levels and just above the global average. This is one of a series of EPRS briefings on major economies outside the European Union, looking at their climate policies in the run-up to the COP27 United Nations climate change conference of parties being held in November 2022.

In recent years, the migration policy of the European Union (EU) has focused on strict border controls and the externalisation of migration management through cooperation with third countries. Although states have the right to decide whether to grant non-EU nationals access to their territory, they must do this in accordance with the law and uphold individuals' fundamental rights. Nonetheless, national human rights institutions, international bodies, media and civil society organisations regularly ...

Plenary round-up – October II 2022

De un vistazo 21-10-2022

Russia's aggression against Ukraine once more dominated the agenda for the October II 2022 plenary session, with Members participating in a number of debates on the consequences of the war: the social and economic repercussions and the introduction of a windfall tax; the impact on migration flows; recognising the Russian Federation as a state sponsor of terrorism; and the Lukashenko regime's active role in the war against Ukraine. Parliament also debated preparations for the European Council meeting ...

The European Political Community (EPC) held its inaugural meeting on 6 October in Prague, bringing together on an equal footing the leaders of the EU's 27 Member States and 17 other European countries. French President Emmanuel Macron had called for the creation of the EPC after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, to serve as a forum for political dialogue and cooperation on security, stability and prosperity. Its first gathering, attended by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and ...

China's 20th Party Congress

Briefing 19-10-2022

The 20th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) opened in Beijing on 16 October 2022. Its main task is, in theory, to decide on the composition of the Central Committee, which in the legal fiction in turn decides, immediately following the Congress, whether to grant current General Secretary Xi a third mandate, and determines the composition of the Standing Committee of the Politburo (SCPB). Observers are alert for any sign that the principle of collective leadership has eroded further and ...