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Jacques Delors: Architect of the modern European Union

13-07-2020

The consensus among most historians of European integration and political scientists is that Jacques Delors, who served as President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1995, was the most successful holder of that post to date. His agenda and accomplishments include the EU single market, the Single European Act, Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the rapid integration of the former German Democratic Republic into the European Community. His combination of coherent agenda-setting and strong ...

The consensus among most historians of European integration and political scientists is that Jacques Delors, who served as President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1995, was the most successful holder of that post to date. His agenda and accomplishments include the EU single market, the Single European Act, Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the rapid integration of the former German Democratic Republic into the European Community. His combination of coherent agenda-setting and strong negotiating skills, acquired through long experience of trade union bargaining and years of ministerial responsibilities in turbulent times, puts Delors above other Commission Presidents, whether in terms of institutional innovation or the development of new Europe-wide policies. He also showed himself able to react swiftly to external events, notably the collapse of the Soviet bloc, whilst building Europe’s credibility on the international stage. This Briefing records Delors' life across its crucial stages, from trade union activist, senior civil servant, French politician, and Member of the European Parliament, to the helm of the European Commission, where he left the greatest individual impact on European integration history to date. It also traces the most important ideas that guided Delors in his national and European roles. Finally, it describes the political events and key actors which made Delors' decade in office a time of important decisions and progress in the process of European integration and, in doing so, it draws on recent academic literature and on speeches Delors gave in the European Parliament.

Walter Hallstein: First President of the Commission and visionary of European integration

11-07-2019

When Walter Hallstein became the first President of the European Economic Community Commission, in 1958, a long career already lay behind him: legal scholar, university professor, research manager, diplomat and German government representative at the conferences drafting the founding treaties of the European Coal and Steel Community and then the European Economic Community. The federalist ideas he developed and the emphasis he placed on supranational institutions remain among his most important legacies ...

When Walter Hallstein became the first President of the European Economic Community Commission, in 1958, a long career already lay behind him: legal scholar, university professor, research manager, diplomat and German government representative at the conferences drafting the founding treaties of the European Coal and Steel Community and then the European Economic Community. The federalist ideas he developed and the emphasis he placed on supranational institutions remain among his most important legacies. Equally significant was his administrative capacity to build an institution of a completely new type and to anticipate policies that seemed utopian at the time but turned out to be necessary many years later. This impetus to push for further integration earned Hallstein strong opposition from several national leaders, and eventually led to his precipitous departure. This briefing recalls three principal aspects of Hallstein's life: as a scholar and research administrator, as a protagonist of German foreign policy and, of course, as a crucial architect of the early period of European integration.

The European Elections: EU Legislation, National Provisions and Civic Participation

15-04-2014

This study describes both the European framework and national provisions on electoral procedures in the Member States of the European Union, including recent developments such as the creation of European political parties and foundations and the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. For all Member States the most important legal provisions, the electoral system and some outcomes of past elections -such as gender distribution of MEPs and participation of citizens from other Member States -are presented ...

This study describes both the European framework and national provisions on electoral procedures in the Member States of the European Union, including recent developments such as the creation of European political parties and foundations and the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. For all Member States the most important legal provisions, the electoral system and some outcomes of past elections -such as gender distribution of MEPs and participation of citizens from other Member States -are presented. The document also provides information sources for further study of national regulations.

Written Declarations in the European Parliament - A Review of Process and Impact

15-12-2011

This comparative review examines the procedure and outcome of the European Parliament's Written Declarations, pursuant to Rule 123 of its Rules of Procedure. Moreover, it inspects the provisions of other national and international parliaments with a view to identify similar procedures and their particularities. Some tentative conclusions are drawn with respect to a possible update of Parliament's rules.

This comparative review examines the procedure and outcome of the European Parliament's Written Declarations, pursuant to Rule 123 of its Rules of Procedure. Moreover, it inspects the provisions of other national and international parliaments with a view to identify similar procedures and their particularities. Some tentative conclusions are drawn with respect to a possible update of Parliament's rules.

Federal States and International Organisations : A Short Comparison of their Amending Rules with the European Union

13-12-2011

This comparative note looks at the legal provisions ruling the amendment of the founding documents of federal states and international organisations and compares them to Art. 48 of the Treaty on European Union. The European Union is the only political organisation requiring a double unanimous decision, firstly when signing a revising treaty and, secondly, when ratifying it in the Member States. The new rules proposed for the entry into force of the European Stability Mechanism treaty indicate that ...

This comparative note looks at the legal provisions ruling the amendment of the founding documents of federal states and international organisations and compares them to Art. 48 of the Treaty on European Union. The European Union is the only political organisation requiring a double unanimous decision, firstly when signing a revising treaty and, secondly, when ratifying it in the Member States. The new rules proposed for the entry into force of the European Stability Mechanism treaty indicate that EU leaders, at least in selected policy fields, are in the process of changing their views on the usefulness of the "mutual agreement" rule.

Parliamentary committees of inquiry in national systems: a comparative survey of EU Member States

14-10-2011

This paper provides an update and extension of a 2007 overview of national provisions for parliamentary committees of inquiry. It concentrates on the legal framework in which these committees operate and the limits and responsibilities under which they carry out their investigations.

This paper provides an update and extension of a 2007 overview of national provisions for parliamentary committees of inquiry. It concentrates on the legal framework in which these committees operate and the limits and responsibilities under which they carry out their investigations.

The European Citizens' Initiative online? Some European and national experiences

15-07-2010

The inclusion of the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) in the Lisbon Treaty is a recognition of earlier developments in many parts of the democratic world. The implementation of its practical parameters will be a crucial element for the acceptance of the ECI by EU citizens and will send an important message to other regions and countries. The purpose of this study is to provide background information on the present situation in the Member States of the EU, and on the European level, as far as the ...

The inclusion of the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) in the Lisbon Treaty is a recognition of earlier developments in many parts of the democratic world. The implementation of its practical parameters will be a crucial element for the acceptance of the ECI by EU citizens and will send an important message to other regions and countries. The purpose of this study is to provide background information on the present situation in the Member States of the EU, and on the European level, as far as the use of modern technical equipment such as online registration of popular initiatives, referendums or petitions is concerned. Since there is no direct equivalent to the new ECI at Member State level any comparisons are necessarily limited but nevertheless instructive.

Democracia europea, identidad constitucional y soberanía: Repercusiones de la sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional alemán sobre el Tratado de Lisboa en la doctrina constitucional europea

17-05-2010

Como previsto, la sentencia de la Corte constitucional federal alemana sobre la ratificación del Tratado de Lisboa provocó un amplio debate en la opinión pública y en el mundo académico. Este estudio analiza las interpretaciones académicas de la decisión. El análisis se concretiza, en particular, sobre las siguientes cuestiones constitucionales tratadas por la Corte: democracia a nivel europeo, identidad constitucional de los Estados miembros y soberanía política. Recientes iniciativas del Parlamento ...

Como previsto, la sentencia de la Corte constitucional federal alemana sobre la ratificación del Tratado de Lisboa provocó un amplio debate en la opinión pública y en el mundo académico. Este estudio analiza las interpretaciones académicas de la decisión. El análisis se concretiza, en particular, sobre las siguientes cuestiones constitucionales tratadas por la Corte: democracia a nivel europeo, identidad constitucional de los Estados miembros y soberanía política. Recientes iniciativas del Parlamento Europeo y las nuevas disposiciones introducidas por el Tratado de Lisboa son evaluadas tomando en consideración los aspectos que plantea la doctrina constitucional europea. July

Etat actuel du financement des partis et fondations européens

15-04-2010

Ce document présente la situation actuelle du financement des partis politiques au niveau européen ainsi que les règles prévues dans les statuts de ces partis pour l'adhésion de membres individuels. Quelques recommandations pour une future révision du règlement concernant les partis européens sont également inclues.

Ce document présente la situation actuelle du financement des partis politiques au niveau européen ainsi que les règles prévues dans les statuts de ces partis pour l'adhésion de membres individuels. Quelques recommandations pour une future révision du règlement concernant les partis européens sont également inclues.

The European Elections - EU Legislation, National Provisions and Civic Participation

16-02-2009

This study describes both the European framework and national provisions on electoral procedures in the Member States of the European Union, including recent developments such as the creation of European Political Parties and the reform of the Electoral Act of 1976. For each country the most important legal provisions, the electoral system and some outcomes of past elections - such as participation of citizens from other Member States - are presented. The document also provides information sources ...

This study describes both the European framework and national provisions on electoral procedures in the Member States of the European Union, including recent developments such as the creation of European Political Parties and the reform of the Electoral Act of 1976. For each country the most important legal provisions, the electoral system and some outcomes of past elections - such as participation of citizens from other Member States - are presented. The document also provides information sources for further study of national regulations.

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Public Hearing on AI and Health
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