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Artificial intelligence in transport: Current and future developments, opportunities and challenges

27-03-2019

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities ...

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities come real challenges, including unintended consequences and misuse such as cyber-attacks and biased decisions about transport. There are also ramifications for employment, and ethical questions regarding liability for the decisions taken by artificial intelligence in the place of humans. The EU is taking steps to adapt its regulatory framework to these developments, so that it supports innovation while at the same time ensuring respect for fundamental values and rights. The measures already taken include general strategies on artificial intelligence and rules that support the technologies enabling the application of artificial intelligence in transport. In addition, the EU provides financial support, in particular for research.

Piracy and armed robbery off the coast of Africa: EU and global impact

19-03-2019

African maritime security is affected by a wide range of illegal activities. This paper focuses on maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea, examining the legal aspects and societal implications of these forms of violence. Maritime piracy and armed robbery off Africa's coasts also pose a threat to the European Union's security and economy. Since 2008, the European Union has been implementing a maritime security strategy by means of separate regional strategies in the Gulf of Aden and in the Gulf ...

African maritime security is affected by a wide range of illegal activities. This paper focuses on maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea, examining the legal aspects and societal implications of these forms of violence. Maritime piracy and armed robbery off Africa's coasts also pose a threat to the European Union's security and economy. Since 2008, the European Union has been implementing a maritime security strategy by means of separate regional strategies in the Gulf of Aden and in the Gulf of Guinea.

The first climate change strategy for shipping

18-05-2018

Not covered by the 2015 Paris Agreement, international shipping is now joining efforts to tackle climate change. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), a body of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), closed its 72nd session on 13 April 2018 with the adoption of an initial strategy to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping, setting clear emission reduction targets for the first time.

Not covered by the 2015 Paris Agreement, international shipping is now joining efforts to tackle climate change. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), a body of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), closed its 72nd session on 13 April 2018 with the adoption of an initial strategy to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping, setting clear emission reduction targets for the first time.

Challenges to Freedom of the Seas and Maritime Rivalry in Asia

14-03-2017

China’s New Maritime Silk Road policy poses geostrategic challenges and offers some opportunities for the US and its allies in Asia-Pacific. To offset China’s westward focus, the US seeks to create a global alliance strategy with the aim to maintain a balance of power in Eurasia, to avoid a strong Russia-China or China-EU partnership fostered on economic cooperation. For the EU, the ‘One Belt, One Road’ (OBOR) initiative by improving infrastructure may contribute to economic development in neighbouring ...

China’s New Maritime Silk Road policy poses geostrategic challenges and offers some opportunities for the US and its allies in Asia-Pacific. To offset China’s westward focus, the US seeks to create a global alliance strategy with the aim to maintain a balance of power in Eurasia, to avoid a strong Russia-China or China-EU partnership fostered on economic cooperation. For the EU, the ‘One Belt, One Road’ (OBOR) initiative by improving infrastructure may contribute to economic development in neighbouring countries and in Africa but present also risks in terms of unfair economic competition and increased Chinese domination. Furthermore, China’s behaviour in the South China Sea and rebuff of the ruling of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, in July 2016, put the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) at risk with possible consequences to freedom of the seas. Increasing relations with China could also affect EU-US relations at a time of China-US tension. To face these challenges, a stronger EU, taking more responsibility in Defence and Security, including inside NATO, is needed.

Autor externo

Patrick HÉBRARD (Fondation pour la recherche stratégique - FRS, Paris, France)

China, the 16+1 cooperation format and the EU

01-03-2017

The 16+1 sub-regional cooperation format brings together China and 16 central and eastern European countries (CEECs), consisting of 11 EU Member States and five EU candidate countries. The format is controversial, given the concerns expressed about arrangements made under its umbrella being in conflict with EU law and about a perceived erosion of EU norms, values and unity. Nearly five years on from its creation, mutually satisfactory results still lag behind expectations.

The 16+1 sub-regional cooperation format brings together China and 16 central and eastern European countries (CEECs), consisting of 11 EU Member States and five EU candidate countries. The format is controversial, given the concerns expressed about arrangements made under its umbrella being in conflict with EU law and about a perceived erosion of EU norms, values and unity. Nearly five years on from its creation, mutually satisfactory results still lag behind expectations.

IMO: Reducing global emissions from shipping

16-11-2016

Although emissions from international aviation and shipping were not included in the Paris Agreement on climate change, separate emission negotiations have been under way in these sectors. When the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) – a body of the International Maritime Organization – met in London in October 2016 for its 70th session, its agenda featured two items concerning air pollution from ships. While the MEPC took a clear step towards cutting sulphur emissions, progress on curbing ...

Although emissions from international aviation and shipping were not included in the Paris Agreement on climate change, separate emission negotiations have been under way in these sectors. When the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) – a body of the International Maritime Organization – met in London in October 2016 for its 70th session, its agenda featured two items concerning air pollution from ships. While the MEPC took a clear step towards cutting sulphur emissions, progress on curbing global greenhouse gas emissions has been slower.

Key Issues at Stake at the 69th Session of the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 69)

15-04-2016

Despite efficiency improvements, CO2 emissions from international shipping are projected to be six times higher in 2050 than in 1990. At the Paris climate conference, countries agreed to limit climate change to well below 2°C. Without considerable contributions of the shipping sector to global mitigation efforts this goal will be much harder to achieve. In 2011, the IMO adopted two efficiency measures to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) sets compulsory ...

Despite efficiency improvements, CO2 emissions from international shipping are projected to be six times higher in 2050 than in 1990. At the Paris climate conference, countries agreed to limit climate change to well below 2°C. Without considerable contributions of the shipping sector to global mitigation efforts this goal will be much harder to achieve. In 2011, the IMO adopted two efficiency measures to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) sets compulsory energy efficiency standards for new ships built after 2013, and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) requires ships to develop a plan to monitor and possibly improve their energy efficiency; shipping was the first sector to set global efficiency standards; earlier efforts to establish a Market-based Mechanism (MBM) have not been successful to date and are still in limbo. The main issues at stake at MEPC 69 are the review of the EEDI target values, the potential adoption of a GHG data collection system and proposals for a work programme geared to determining a fair share for international shipping in global GHG mitigation efforts. Particularly the outcome of the latter will reveal the extent to which IMO Member States consider the Paris Agreement as a mandate to enhance GHG mitigation efforts under the IMO. It is recommended that the ENVI delegation use opportunities such as bilateral meetings with delegations from other countries, informal conversations or the side events to promote the adoption of an ambitious data collection system and to highlight the importance of a work programme geared to determining international shipping’s fair share in global GHG mitigation efforts.

The IMO – for 'safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean oceans'

15-02-2016

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a United Nations specialised agency responsible for regulating international shipping. Since 1959, when it met for the first time, the IMO's overarching objectives have been the improvement of maritime safety and the prevention of marine pollution, to which maritime security was added later. The organisation's functioning reflects the diverging interests of its 171 member states acting in diverse capacities as port, coastal and flag states on the ...

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a United Nations specialised agency responsible for regulating international shipping. Since 1959, when it met for the first time, the IMO's overarching objectives have been the improvement of maritime safety and the prevention of marine pollution, to which maritime security was added later. The organisation's functioning reflects the diverging interests of its 171 member states acting in diverse capacities as port, coastal and flag states on the one hand, and as developed, developing or least developed states, on the other. The main legal instruments used by the IMO are conventions. Generally regarded as being of a high standard, the body of technical rules adopted through these conventions is widely accepted. In contrast, the IMO received criticism in 2015 for its approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, perceived as insufficient. While all EU Member States and the European Commission take part in IMO meetings, the EU has over the years developed and applied its own maritime legislation, which has on occasion stirred debate within the international shipping community. In 2015, the European Parliament sent its first-ever delegation to an IMO meeting. Furthermore, the Parliament added its voice to the international community calling on the IMO to step up action on reducing shipping emissions.

Mejorar el concepto de «autopistas del mar»

15-12-2014

El estudio ofrece un panorama del programa «Autopistas del mar» desde su inicio. Sobre la base de la investigación llevada a cabo, se han determinado tres obstáculos principales. Los obstáculos son los siguientes: 1) las partes interesadas no tienen conciencia suficiente de la existencia del programa; 2) se da una falta de continuidad una vez concluida la financiación del proyecto; 3) la cooperación entre las partes interesadas no es siempre óptima. Estos tres factores, combinados con otros obstáculos ...

El estudio ofrece un panorama del programa «Autopistas del mar» desde su inicio. Sobre la base de la investigación llevada a cabo, se han determinado tres obstáculos principales. Los obstáculos son los siguientes: 1) las partes interesadas no tienen conciencia suficiente de la existencia del programa; 2) se da una falta de continuidad una vez concluida la financiación del proyecto; 3) la cooperación entre las partes interesadas no es siempre óptima. Estos tres factores, combinados con otros obstáculos, han redundado en que el impacto del programa haya sido menor de lo que cabía esperar. Por este motivo, se ha formulado una serie de recomendaciones y posibles escenarios con miras a mejorar el concepto de «autopistas del mar».

Autor externo

Karel Vanroye, Bas van Bree and Frank de Bruin (Buck Consultants International)

Port Services: Initial Appraisal of the Commission's Impact Assessment

08-11-2013

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's Impact Assessment accompanying its proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework on the market access to port services and the financial transparency of ports (COM (2013) 296), submitted on 23 May 2013. It analyses whether the principal criteria laid down in the Commission’s own Impact Assessment Guidelines, as well as additional factors identified ...

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's Impact Assessment accompanying its proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework on the market access to port services and the financial transparency of ports (COM (2013) 296), submitted on 23 May 2013. It analyses whether the principal criteria laid down in the Commission’s own Impact Assessment Guidelines, as well as additional factors identified by the Parliament in its Impact Assessment Handbook, appear to be met by the IA. It does not attempt to deal with the substance of the proposal.

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