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El comercio de la Unión con América Latina y el Caribe: Panorama general y cifras

16-12-2019

Los treinta y tres países que forman la Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños (CELAC) son, de forma conjunta, el quinto socio comercial más importante de la Unión. La Unión mantiene acuerdos plenamente funcionales con dos agrupaciones de América Latina (el Cariforum y el grupo de Centroamérica), un acuerdo comercial multilateral con tres países de la Comunidad Andina (Colombia, el Ecuador y el Perú) y acuerdos con México y Chile que están en trámites de modernización. Asimismo, la Unión ...

Los treinta y tres países que forman la Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños (CELAC) son, de forma conjunta, el quinto socio comercial más importante de la Unión. La Unión mantiene acuerdos plenamente funcionales con dos agrupaciones de América Latina (el Cariforum y el grupo de Centroamérica), un acuerdo comercial multilateral con tres países de la Comunidad Andina (Colombia, el Ecuador y el Perú) y acuerdos con México y Chile que están en trámites de modernización. Asimismo, la Unión mantiene acuerdos marco interregionales y bilaterales tanto con el Mercosur como con cada uno de sus miembros. Los acuerdos de la Unión que regulan las relaciones comerciales con las agrupaciones y los países de América Latina y el Caribe difieren considerablemente en cuanto a la cobertura y la metodología, en función del momento en el que se firmaron y del contexto de las negociaciones. La Unión está modernizando actualmente los pilares comerciales de sus acuerdos con México (se alcanzó un «acuerdo de principio» en abril de 2018) y Chile (las negociaciones todavía siguen su curso), con el fin de adaptarlos a las normas vigentes sobre acuerdos de libre comercio de la Unión. Si se logra ratificar el Acuerdo de Asociación UE-Mercosur, que incluye un pilar comercial para el que se alcanzó un acuerdo político en junio de 2019, la Unión contaría entonces con acuerdos exhaustivos en materia de relaciones comerciales con casi toda América Latina y el Caribe (con la excepción de Bolivia, Cuba y Venezuela).

CETA implementation: SMEs and regions in focus

18-11-2019

The majority of provisions of the EU-Canada Comprehensive Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) have been implemented since 21 September 2017, with the agreement’s provisional application pending full ratification. The aim of this EPRS analysis is to chart the state of play of CETA's ratification procedures, its key objectives, remaining controversies, and the initial results stemming from two years of provisional application, with a focus on regions and small and medium-sized enterprises ...

The majority of provisions of the EU-Canada Comprehensive Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) have been implemented since 21 September 2017, with the agreement’s provisional application pending full ratification. The aim of this EPRS analysis is to chart the state of play of CETA's ratification procedures, its key objectives, remaining controversies, and the initial results stemming from two years of provisional application, with a focus on regions and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It is important to note that it is too early to evaluate the economic and social impacts of CETA. That will be the remit of the ex-post evaluation usually carried out by the European Commission five years after the start of provisonal application. By providing an overview of the early results of CETA implementation two years in, this analysis seeks to inform forthcoming deliberations on both CETA itself and other free trade agreements between the EU and various partner countries.

International Agreements in Progress: EU-Vietnam trade and investment agreements

14-11-2019

The European Commission has described the free trade and investment protection agreements (FTA/IPA) signed with Vietnam as the most ambitious deals of their type ever concluded by the EU and a developing country. Not only will they eliminate over 99 % of customs duties on goods, they will also open up Vietnamese markets to European service providers and investors. According to European Commission figures, the agreements will boost trade in both directions, with EU exports set to rise by nearly 30 ...

The European Commission has described the free trade and investment protection agreements (FTA/IPA) signed with Vietnam as the most ambitious deals of their type ever concluded by the EU and a developing country. Not only will they eliminate over 99 % of customs duties on goods, they will also open up Vietnamese markets to European service providers and investors. According to European Commission figures, the agreements will boost trade in both directions, with EU exports set to rise by nearly 30 %. Vietnam is the second south-east Asian country after Singapore to sign trade and investment agreements with the EU, bringing the long-term goal of a region-to-region EU-ASEAN trade deal a step closer. In view of the human rights situation in Vietnam, opinions are divided on whether the agreements should be ratified. Critics argue that the EU should not approve the agreements until the situation improves. On the other hand, defenders point out that the FTA/IPA include commitments to stronger human rights (such as allowing independent trade unions); they also insist that the EU can best help to bring about improvements by engaging with Vietnam . Following the same approach as for Singapore, the single text originally agreed in 2015 with Vietnam has been split into two parts, an FTA covering exclusive EU competences and an IPA that includes competences that are shared with EU Member States. The European Parliament is set to vote in February 2020; if it gives its consent, the two agreements will then have to be ratified by Vietnam and (for the IPA) the EU Member States before entering into force.

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - September 2019

16-09-2019

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Acuerdos internacionales en curso: El pilar comercial del Acuerdo de Asociación UE-Mercosur

30-08-2019

El 28 de junio de 2019, la Unión Europea (UE) y los cuatro miembros fundadores del Mercosur (el «Mercado Común del Sur»), Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay, alcanzaron un «acuerdo de principio» sobre un acuerdo de libre comercio (ALC) como parte de un acuerdo de asociación (AA) más amplio. Sin embargo, a raíz de la destrucción masiva del Amazonas brasileño a través de incendios forestales a gran escala, tanto los responsables políticos de la Unión Europea como los grupos internacionales de defensa ...

El 28 de junio de 2019, la Unión Europea (UE) y los cuatro miembros fundadores del Mercosur (el «Mercado Común del Sur»), Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay, alcanzaron un «acuerdo de principio» sobre un acuerdo de libre comercio (ALC) como parte de un acuerdo de asociación (AA) más amplio. Sin embargo, a raíz de la destrucción masiva del Amazonas brasileño a través de incendios forestales a gran escala, tanto los responsables políticos de la Unión Europea como los grupos internacionales de defensa del medio ambiente han alzado su voz de manera cada vez más clamorosa para expresar su preocupación por las posibles repercusiones del acuerdo sobre el medio ambiente y el cambio climático. Las asociaciones de agricultores de la Unión con intereses defensivos han criticado ferozmente lo que han calificado de acuerdo de «coches por vacas». Por otra parte, el acuerdo ha sido acogido muy calurosamente por las asociaciones industriales de la Unión y varios subsectores de la agricultura de la Unión con intereses ofensivos. Si se eliminan o reducen sustancialmente las barreras arancelarias y no arancelarias, el potencial de crecimiento del comercio birregional de bienes, servicios e inversiones es significativo. Además, el ALC sería una clara señal en favor del sistema comercial multilateral basado en normas y contra las relaciones de poder en el comercio. Tras la revisión jurídica y la traducción del acuerdo, se presentará al Consejo para su firma. Seguidamente se presentará al Parlamento Europeo para su aprobación. Una vez que el Consejo haya adoptado la decisión de celebración del acuerdo, se presentará a los parlamentos de los Estados miembros de la Unión para su ratificación. Primera edición. Los briefings sobre «Acuerdos internacionales en curso» se actualizan en fases clave a lo largo de todo el proceso, desde los debates iniciales hasta la ratificación.

Human rights in EU trade agreements: The human rights clause and its application

08-07-2019

The practice of linking human rights with trade liberalisation has gained ground among many trade partners. Not only the EU, but also other important trade powers, such as the US and Canada, embed human and labour-rights provisions in their new trade agreements. For the EU, this ensues inevitably from the normative vision underlying all of its external policies, as enshrined in the Treaties. Accordingly, the EU has committed to respecting and promoting human rights and democracy through its external ...

The practice of linking human rights with trade liberalisation has gained ground among many trade partners. Not only the EU, but also other important trade powers, such as the US and Canada, embed human and labour-rights provisions in their new trade agreements. For the EU, this ensues inevitably from the normative vision underlying all of its external policies, as enshrined in the Treaties. Accordingly, the EU has committed to respecting and promoting human rights and democracy through its external action. The main mechanism for incorporating human rights into the EU's bilateral agreements consists of an 'essential elements' human rights clause that enables one party to take appropriate measures in case of serious breaches by the other party. The clause, which also covers democratic principles and often the rule of law, is more than just a legal mechanism enabling the unilateral suspension of trade commitments in times of crisis. It enshrines the parties' commitments to human rights and thus puts EU relations with third countries on a solid regulatory base, opening the path to dialogue and cooperation on human rights issues. So far, the EU has clearly preferred a constructive engagement to more restrictive measures, and has not activated the clause to suspend trade preferences under any of its trade agreements. Civil society and the European Parliament have, on the other hand, encouraged the European Commission to use the clause in a more robust way in order to respond to serious breaches of human rights and democratic principles. This briefing focuses exclusively on the EU's bilateral and regional free trade agreements. EU unilateral human and labour rights provisions in trade arrangements are addressed in a separate briefing. A forthcoming EPRS paper will provide more information about labour rights (many of which also form part of the human rights enshrined in international conventions) in EU bilateral agreements.

Trade negotiations with Australia and New Zealand

03-05-2019

This study explores the context and potential of the FTA negotiations between the EU and Australia and New Zealand. Through an analysis of the status quo, as well as several academic and policy analyses, it highlights the main opportunities for the EU from the negotiations, as well as potential threats and obstacles to agreement. The study explores in detail the likely impacts of market opening on trade in goods and services, as well as the potential in other key areas, including public procurement ...

This study explores the context and potential of the FTA negotiations between the EU and Australia and New Zealand. Through an analysis of the status quo, as well as several academic and policy analyses, it highlights the main opportunities for the EU from the negotiations, as well as potential threats and obstacles to agreement. The study explores in detail the likely impacts of market opening on trade in goods and services, as well as the potential in other key areas, including public procurement and investment. It also highlights the current architecture of FTAs which Australia and New Zealand have established, especially the very recent Comprehensive and Progressive Trans Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), to which both are party. It explores how these agreements impact on the EU’s competitiveness in the Australian and New Zealand markets and how FTAs could be leveraged to improve EU integration with these partners and their broader region. The study also considers how trade and sustainable development (TSD) can be effectively integrated into the agreements, in line with the objectives of the EU’s ‘Trade for All’ strategy. Finally, several potential wider, more political impacts of the FTAs are underlined.

Autor externo

Louise CURRAN

International Agreements in Progress: The EU-Japan Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) - A framework to promote shared values

22-01-2019

The EU and Japan share the same basic values, including on democracy, market economy, human rights, human dignity, freedom, equality, and the rule of law. Against a background of increasingly assertive neighbours, they are also putting emphasis on security issues. The EU has adopted a Global Strategy placing security and defence as a key strategic priority, and conclusions on 'enhanced EU security cooperation in and with Asia'. Japan has reformed its security policy, aiming at becoming a 'proactive ...

The EU and Japan share the same basic values, including on democracy, market economy, human rights, human dignity, freedom, equality, and the rule of law. Against a background of increasingly assertive neighbours, they are also putting emphasis on security issues. The EU has adopted a Global Strategy placing security and defence as a key strategic priority, and conclusions on 'enhanced EU security cooperation in and with Asia'. Japan has reformed its security policy, aiming at becoming a 'proactive contributor for peace'. In order to enhance their relations, in July 2018 the EU and Japan signed a binding Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) – to come into force following ratfication by all Member States – along with an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), negotiated in parallel. The SPA represents a framework strengthening the overall partnership, by promoting political and sectoral cooperation and joint actions in more than 40 areas of common interest. Once in force, the EU-Japan strategic partnership will become more operational. The agreement will facilitate joint EU-Japan efforts to promote shared values such as human rights and rule of law, a rules-based international system, and peace and stability across the world. It will allow EU-Japan security cooperation to reach its full potential. Second edition. The 'International Agreements in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the process, from initial discussions through to ratification.

La Unión y Japón intentan impulsar sus relaciones

05-12-2018

La UE y Japón han transmitido un claro mensaje a favor del libre comercio y con respecto a su compromiso compartido con valores y principios fundamentales. En julio de 2018 firmaron el Acuerdo de Asociación Económica UE-Japón y del Acuerdo de Asociación Estratégica UE-Japón. Ambos acuerdos requieren ahora la aprobación del Parlamento Europeo para su celebración.

La UE y Japón han transmitido un claro mensaje a favor del libre comercio y con respecto a su compromiso compartido con valores y principios fundamentales. En julio de 2018 firmaron el Acuerdo de Asociación Económica UE-Japón y del Acuerdo de Asociación Estratégica UE-Japón. Ambos acuerdos requieren ahora la aprobación del Parlamento Europeo para su celebración.

Finding the right balance across EU FTAs: benefits and risks for EU economic sectors

17-10-2018

Globally, anti-trade sentiment is on the rise, meaning it is incumbent upon policymakers to explore and explain the benefits of free and open trade. This study examines the costs and benefits of various free trade agreements (FTAs) that the EU has completed, will complete, or is contemplating. With regard to completed FTAs, the EU has seen benefits in terms of consumer choice but has a much larger and positive impact on its partners (although not as much as ex-ante modelling would suggest). For forthcoming ...

Globally, anti-trade sentiment is on the rise, meaning it is incumbent upon policymakers to explore and explain the benefits of free and open trade. This study examines the costs and benefits of various free trade agreements (FTAs) that the EU has completed, will complete, or is contemplating. With regard to completed FTAs, the EU has seen benefits in terms of consumer choice but has a much larger and positive impact on its partners (although not as much as ex-ante modelling would suggest). For forthcoming or contemplated FTAs, the issue of non-tariff barriers must be considered for FTAs with developed economies to be a success, while comprehensive liberalisation with emerging markets improves trade and other outcomes for both the EU and its partner. Across all FTAs, trade and economic metrics are improved by an agreement while indirect effects (human rights, environment) are less likely to change. We conclude that the EU must continue its focus on comprehensive liberalisation, incorporating NTBs effectively into new agreements, while tempering expectations of influence on human rights.

Autor externo

Christopher HARTWELL, Veronika MOVCHAN

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