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EU Defence: The White Book implementation process

12-12-2018

The question of a defence White Book at European level has been under discussion for some time. Many voices, particularly in the European Parliament, are pushing for such an initiative, while others consider that it is not only unnecessary, but could even dangerously divide Europeans. Concretely, the question cannot be tackled separately from that of defence planning and processes which underpin the development of military capabilities, as White Books are often the starting point for these. Within ...

The question of a defence White Book at European level has been under discussion for some time. Many voices, particularly in the European Parliament, are pushing for such an initiative, while others consider that it is not only unnecessary, but could even dangerously divide Europeans. Concretely, the question cannot be tackled separately from that of defence planning and processes which underpin the development of military capabilities, as White Books are often the starting point for these. Within the European Union, however, there is not just one, but three types defence planning: the national planning of each of the Member States; planning within the framework of NATO (the NATO Defence Planning Process) and, finally, the European Union’s planning, which has developed in stages since the Helsinki summit of 1999 and comprises many elements. Its best-known component - but by no means not the only one - is the capability development plan established by the European Defence Agency. How do all these different planning systems coexist? What are their strengths and weaknesses? Answering these preliminary questions is essential in mapping the path to a White Book. This is what this study sets out to do.

Autor externo

Mr Frédéric MAURO

EU efforts on counter-terrorism - Capacity-building in third countries

19-12-2017

In the European Union (EU), responsibility for counter-terrorism lies primarily with Member States. However, the role of the EU itself in counter-terrorism has grown significantly in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks that have hit Europe in the post-'9/11' era. The cross-border aspects of the terrorist threat call for a coordinated EU approach. Moreover, the assumption that there is a connection between development and stability, as well as internal and external security, has come to shape the ...

In the European Union (EU), responsibility for counter-terrorism lies primarily with Member States. However, the role of the EU itself in counter-terrorism has grown significantly in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks that have hit Europe in the post-'9/11' era. The cross-border aspects of the terrorist threat call for a coordinated EU approach. Moreover, the assumption that there is a connection between development and stability, as well as internal and external security, has come to shape the EU's actions beyond its own borders. In the context of terrorism, the EU has an extensive toolkit of human and financial resources that support third countries in managing or mitigating terrorist threats. A key element of EU action is capacity-building in partner countries, to ensure local ownership, a sustainable assistance model and the full use of local expertise for challenges that are geographically distinct. The EU's external capacity-building efforts in counter-terrorism include security sector reform (SSR)-associated measures, such as strengthening the rule of law, improving the governance of security providers, improving border management, reforming the armed forces, and training law enforcement actors. As part of the EU's multifaceted assistance, efforts to curb terrorist funding and improve strategic communications to counter radicalisation and violent extremism complement SSR-related activities. Soft-power projects funded through the Commission's different funding instruments, coupled with both military and civilian common security and defence policy missions provide the framework through which the EU tries to address both the root causes and the symptoms of terrorism and radicalisation.

Permanent structured cooperation (PESCO): From notification to establishment

08-12-2017

On 13 November 2017, 23 EU Member States signed a joint notification addressed to the Council and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission (HR/VP) on their intention to participate in PESCO. The Council is now expected to formally establish PESCO, possibly before the end of the year.

On 13 November 2017, 23 EU Member States signed a joint notification addressed to the Council and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission (HR/VP) on their intention to participate in PESCO. The Council is now expected to formally establish PESCO, possibly before the end of the year.

European defence [What Think Tanks are thinking]

08-12-2017

The European Union is moving closer to developing integrated European defence after 23 of its 28 Member States agreed in November on joint military investment in equipment, research and develop¬ment through Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), an enhanced-cooperation mechanism enshrined in the 2009 Lisbon Treaty. The plan is to jointly develop European military capabilities and make them available for operations separately from, or in complementarity with, NATO. This note brings together commentaries ...

The European Union is moving closer to developing integrated European defence after 23 of its 28 Member States agreed in November on joint military investment in equipment, research and develop¬ment through Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), an enhanced-cooperation mechanism enshrined in the 2009 Lisbon Treaty. The plan is to jointly develop European military capabilities and make them available for operations separately from, or in complementarity with, NATO. This note brings together commentaries, analyses and studies by major international think tanks and research institutes on European Union defence. Earlier publications on the topic can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are Thinking' published in May 2017.

Permanent Structured Cooperation: national perspectives and state of play

17-07-2017

One year after the British vote on Brexit, the Member States of the European Union seem to be on the verge of waking the ‘Sleeping Beauty’ of European defence: permanent structured cooperation (PESCO). Do they have the same understanding of its intended goals and of the ways forward or means of achieving them, or are they simply motivated by the desire not to end up on the edges of the sort of Eurogroup for defence that is being set up? What are the specific areas of agreement and disagreement between ...

One year after the British vote on Brexit, the Member States of the European Union seem to be on the verge of waking the ‘Sleeping Beauty’ of European defence: permanent structured cooperation (PESCO). Do they have the same understanding of its intended goals and of the ways forward or means of achieving them, or are they simply motivated by the desire not to end up on the edges of the sort of Eurogroup for defence that is being set up? What are the specific areas of agreement and disagreement between the groups taking shape in the European Council? Have any debates intentionally or unintentionally glossed over been glossed over and, if so, which ones? Lastly, what are the desirable scenarios for the months and years to come? Is there still time to change things or has the die been cast? The purpose of this study is to answer those questions.

Autor externo

Me. Frederic MAURO, M. Federico SANTOPINTO

NATO and EU defence [What Think Tanks are thinking]

12-05-2017

The US President, Donald Trump, will meet with the other leaders of the NATO member states at a summit in Brussels on 25 May 2017. Among issues on the table are the new US Administration's commitment to Europe's security, and the levels of military spending in Europe, which Washington considers too low. President Trump’s early statements created doubts in Europe about the future of transatlantic relations, but he and his officials have since reassured both NATO and the European Union that such ties ...

The US President, Donald Trump, will meet with the other leaders of the NATO member states at a summit in Brussels on 25 May 2017. Among issues on the table are the new US Administration's commitment to Europe's security, and the levels of military spending in Europe, which Washington considers too low. President Trump’s early statements created doubts in Europe about the future of transatlantic relations, but he and his officials have since reassured both NATO and the European Union that such ties will remain very important. This note offers links to commentaries, studies and reports by major international think tanks, on NATO, its relations with the EU and the wider issue of European security. More papers on the topics can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are thinking', published in December 2016, PE 589.766.

Western Balkans: Parliamentary oversight of the security sector

02-05-2017

Both the European Union and NATO have sought to promote democratic security sector governance as one of the criteria for their respective accession candidates. Consequently, the Western Balkan countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia), Montenegro and Serbia – have begun security sector reforms as part of their Euro-Atlantic integration. The overall objective of these reforms is to support the transformation of the security ...

Both the European Union and NATO have sought to promote democratic security sector governance as one of the criteria for their respective accession candidates. Consequently, the Western Balkan countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia), Montenegro and Serbia – have begun security sector reforms as part of their Euro-Atlantic integration. The overall objective of these reforms is to support the transformation of the security sector in accordance with democratic norms and the principles of good governance, rule of law, protection of human rights and efficient use of public resources. In this context, a special focus is placed on improving governance through greater civilian and parliamentary oversight of security processes. Since the 1990s, Western Balkan countries have all, in the push to reform their security sectors, made significant progress in terms of setting up the necessary legal framework and oversight mechanisms, including parliamentary committees. However, when it comes to aligning their security sectors with the principles of democratic governance, they have had varying success.

Russia's role in Central Asia

13-03-2017

Some 25 years after the breakup of the USSR, Russia is still the dominant player in Central Asia. China and the EU have more trade and investment in the region, but Russia is in the lead on security and defence. Moscow consolidates its influence through a series of Russia-led regional organisations, such as the Eurasian Economic Union and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation.

Some 25 years after the breakup of the USSR, Russia is still the dominant player in Central Asia. China and the EU have more trade and investment in the region, but Russia is in the lead on security and defence. Moscow consolidates its influence through a series of Russia-led regional organisations, such as the Eurasian Economic Union and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation.

A global strategy on foreign and security policy for the EU

02-03-2017

Tracking European Commission priority initiatives in 2017 – Number 1 The letter from Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, of 31 January 2017, notes that ‘the challenges currently facing the European Union are more dangerous than ever before in the time since the signature of the Treaty of Rome’. Indeed, the current evolving international environment and geopolitical shifts highlight the need for effective and coherent implementation of the EU global strategy. The top strategic priorities ...

Tracking European Commission priority initiatives in 2017 – Number 1 The letter from Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, of 31 January 2017, notes that ‘the challenges currently facing the European Union are more dangerous than ever before in the time since the signature of the Treaty of Rome’. Indeed, the current evolving international environment and geopolitical shifts highlight the need for effective and coherent implementation of the EU global strategy. The top strategic priorities for the implementation of the strategy, as decided by the Foreign Affairs Council on 17 October 2016 include: security and defence; building resilience and an integrated approach to conflicts and crises; addressing the internal/external security nexus; updating existing strategies and preparing new ones; and enhancing public diplomacy. Strengthening EU cooperation on external security and defence was also discussed at the European Council meeting in December 2016. Heads of State or Government focused on three priorities: implementation of the EU global strategy in the security and defence area, the European defence action plan, and the implementation of the EU-NATO Joint Declaration signed in Warsaw in July 2016. The first implementation report is expected in June 2017. This is an updated edition of a briefing published in April 2016.

Afghanistan: Challenges and Perspectives until 2020

02-02-2017

The international Ministerial Conference on Afghanistan, held in Brussels on 4-5 October 2016, was a success. High representatives of 75 countries and 26 international organisations renewed their commitment to Afghanistan’s stability and development; they also pledged EUR 13.6 billion to support the unity government until 2020. However the country is going through very difficult times: in 2016 insurgents have committed more attacks, which have caused more victims, and controlled more territory than ...

The international Ministerial Conference on Afghanistan, held in Brussels on 4-5 October 2016, was a success. High representatives of 75 countries and 26 international organisations renewed their commitment to Afghanistan’s stability and development; they also pledged EUR 13.6 billion to support the unity government until 2020. However the country is going through very difficult times: in 2016 insurgents have committed more attacks, which have caused more victims, and controlled more territory than in 2015. The numbers of internally displaced people and of refugees returning to Afghanistan, particularly from Pakistan, have grown dramatically. The economic situation is bleak and the government has very limited capacities to provide basic services. The country requires continuous international support for economic development, regional economic cooperation and a reconciliation process leading to lasting peace.

Autor externo

Giulia BONACQUISTI (Trans European Policy Studies Association - TEPSA, Belgium) and Victor TANZARELLA HARTMANN (Trans European Policy Studies Association - TEPSA, Belgium) (for the workshop report) ; Mona KANWAL SHEIKH (Danish Institute for International Studies, Denmark - for the briefing 1) ; Arne STRAND (U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, Chr. Michelsen Institute, Norway - briefing 2) ; Richard GHIASY (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute - SIPRI, Sweden)

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