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The principles of equality and non-discrimination, a comparative law perspective - Canada

26-11-2020

This document is part of a series of studies, which, in a comparative law perspective, seek to present the principles of equality and non-discrimination in different States. This study examines sources of equality law and judicial interpretation of the principles of equality and non-discrimination in Canada. Contemporary equality law was a response to histories of both public and private discrimination in Canada. Statutory protections for equality and non-discrimination emerged in the post World ...

This document is part of a series of studies, which, in a comparative law perspective, seek to present the principles of equality and non-discrimination in different States. This study examines sources of equality law and judicial interpretation of the principles of equality and non-discrimination in Canada. Contemporary equality law was a response to histories of both public and private discrimination in Canada. Statutory protections for equality and non-discrimination emerged in the post World War II era and were expanded and consolidated in the 1960s and 1970s. Constitutional reforms in the 1980s enshrined equality in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Since then, equality jurisprudence has expanded the interpretation of discrimination to include direct, indirect and systemic discrimination. Courts have rejected formal equality to embrace expansive notions of substantive equality in interpreting constitutional protections. Even with such strides over the last decades towards robust equality and non-discrimination principles and protections, just and effective implementation of their promise remains a pressing challenge for Canada.

Autor externo

Professor Colleen SHEPPARD, Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, McGill University

European Commission work programme 2021

25-11-2020

This briefing, which focuses on legislative initiatives only, is intended as a background overview for parliamentary committees (and their respective secretariats) which are planning their activities in relation to the European Commission work programme for 2021 (CWP 2021), adopted on 19 October 2020. It provides an overview of the CWP 2021 with regard to its structure and key aspects, and includes information on two types of EPRS publications that might be of interest to the relevant committees ...

This briefing, which focuses on legislative initiatives only, is intended as a background overview for parliamentary committees (and their respective secretariats) which are planning their activities in relation to the European Commission work programme for 2021 (CWP 2021), adopted on 19 October 2020. It provides an overview of the CWP 2021 with regard to its structure and key aspects, and includes information on two types of EPRS publications that might be of interest to the relevant committees in their consideration of the upcoming legislative proposals: initial appraisals of Commission impact assessments (provided by the Ex-Ante Impact Assessment Unit, IMPA) and implementation appraisals (provided by the Ex-Post Evaluation Unit, EVAL). The annex to the briefing provides, inter alia, a tentative indication of the committee concerned by the 82 legislative files included in the CWP 2021.

Airport charges: Revision of Directive 2009/12/EC

18-11-2020

The Airports Charges Directive 2009/12/EC is the main legislative act regulating the essential features of airport charges. Airport charges are the charges that the airlines pay to the airports for using their infrastructure and facilities. The two main issues that the directive aims to tackle are the risk that some airports might set prices and terms that are not in line with a competitive market, and the diverging and non-transparent charging systems in the Member States. If the evaluation of the ...

The Airports Charges Directive 2009/12/EC is the main legislative act regulating the essential features of airport charges. Airport charges are the charges that the airlines pay to the airports for using their infrastructure and facilities. The two main issues that the directive aims to tackle are the risk that some airports might set prices and terms that are not in line with a competitive market, and the diverging and non-transparent charging systems in the Member States. If the evaluation of the directive revealed positive effects of the regulation, it also identified problematic issues, which hampers the full achievement of its objectives. The European Commission is expected to submit a new proposal by the end of the year.

Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung, eine rechtsvergleichende Perspektive - Deutschland

26-10-2020

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleich-heit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschrif-ten und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall Deutschland zum Gegenstand. Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und Nichtdiskriminierung sind in Deutschland ...

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleich-heit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschrif-ten und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall Deutschland zum Gegenstand. Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und Nichtdiskriminierung sind in Deutschland am wirk-mächtigsten in Art. 3 Grundgesetz verankert: als Grundrechte in Form des sog. allgemei-nen Gleichheitssatzes (Absatz 1) und der beiden speziellen Garantien (Absätze 2 und 3). Das Bundesverfassungsgericht hat diese Rechte schrittweise konkretisiert und durchge-setzt; inzwischen gestalten viele Gesetze die Gleichheitssätze in verfassungskonformer Weise aus, so für das Privatrecht das Allgemeine Gleichbehandlungsgesetz.

Autor externo

Prof. Dr. Franz REIMER, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

I princìpi di eguaglianza e di non discriminazione, una prospettiva di diritto comparato - Italia

23-10-2020

Questo studio fa parte di un progetto più ampio, il cui scopo è quello di analizzare, nella prospettiva del diritto comparato, i princìpi di eguaglianza e di non discriminazione in diversi Stati ed organizzazioni internazionali. Il presente studio è dedicato all’Italia, pur nella consapevolezza dell’importanza delle fonti internazionali e dell’Unione Europea in materia. A tal fine, dopo una breve introduzione di carattere storico generale, sono state prese in esame le vicende normative che hanno ...

Questo studio fa parte di un progetto più ampio, il cui scopo è quello di analizzare, nella prospettiva del diritto comparato, i princìpi di eguaglianza e di non discriminazione in diversi Stati ed organizzazioni internazionali. Il presente studio è dedicato all’Italia, pur nella consapevolezza dell’importanza delle fonti internazionali e dell’Unione Europea in materia. A tal fine, dopo una breve introduzione di carattere storico generale, sono state prese in esame le vicende normative che hanno interessato il principio di eguaglianza, nelle sue varie forme, nell’Italia repubblicana. Il punto di partenza è stato, ovviamente, la Costituzione, mentre le altre fonti sono state ordinate in ragione del mezzo di comunicazione che, di volta in volta, disciplinano. Ampia attenzione è stata dedicata alla giurisprudenza. Nell’impossibilità di dare conto di tutto l’immenso materiale disponibile, si sono selezionati alcuni casi particolarmente significativi. Sono stati identificati, infine, i principali nodi problematici che occorre tuttora sciogliere, in un contesto socio-politico mondiale nel quale le diseguaglianze, per molti strati della popolazione, si sono addirittura approfondite.

Autor externo

Prof. Dr. Massimo Luciani

Los principios de igualdad y no discriminación, una perspectiva de Derecho Comparado - España

22-10-2020

Este estudio forma parte de un proyecto destinado a sentar las bases de una comparación integrada y correlacionada de la regulación del principio de igualdad y no discriminación entre diferentes ordenamientos jurídicos positivos. Las siguientes páginas contienen, en lo relativo a España, el análisis de su legislación vigente, de la jurisprudencia constitucional, así como un paralelo estudio dogmático sobre el concepto y naturaleza de ese derecho, prestando particular atención a sus distintos límites ...

Este estudio forma parte de un proyecto destinado a sentar las bases de una comparación integrada y correlacionada de la regulación del principio de igualdad y no discriminación entre diferentes ordenamientos jurídicos positivos. Las siguientes páginas contienen, en lo relativo a España, el análisis de su legislación vigente, de la jurisprudencia constitucional, así como un paralelo estudio dogmático sobre el concepto y naturaleza de ese derecho, prestando particular atención a sus distintos límites y a las políticas sectoriales positivas o pro activas. Se pasa asimismo revista a sus múltiples desafíos, y a la problemática de la extensión indiscriminada de ciertas medidas de discriminación positiva e inversa que puedan desvirtuar el alcance general del principio de igualdad. La Constitución española de 1978 concibe el principio de igualdad y no discriminación como una piedra angular de todo el edificio constitucional, especialmente en el ámbito de los derechos y libertades públicas, lo que supuso que toda situación de desigualdad existente, al momento de su entrada en vigor, fuera considerada ya incompatible con el nuevo orden de valores. Las disposiciones jurídico-constitucionales sobre la igualdad son, por lo demás, varias. En primer lugar, el art. 14 de la Constitución consagra la igualdad ante la ley (igualdad formal) de todos los españoles, excluyendo toda clase de discriminación, con mención expresa de determinados motivos que son considerados supuestos de discriminación cualificada (nacimiento, raza, sexo, religión, opinión). En segundo término, el art. 1.1 de la Norma fundamental concibe la igualdad como uno de los valores superiores del ordenamiento jurídico español. Finalmente, el art. 9.2 del Texto constitucional recoge la ineludible igualdad material, que se aúna así a la igualdad formal, como un mandato dirigido a los poderes públicos para la remoción de todos los obstáculos que impidan su efectiva realización. La jurisprudencia dictada por el Tribunal Constitucional es de enorme importancia y significación, puesto que desde sus inicios prefiguró su ámbito de aplicación hasta llegar a su delimitación actual, al tiempo que posibilitó su desarrollo y protección más generosa.

Autor externo

Prof. Dr. Pedro GONZÁLEZ-TREVIJANO SÁNCHEZ

Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung, eine rechtsvergleichende Perspektive - Schweiz

19-10-2020

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschriften und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall der Schweiz zum Gegenstand. Die Schweiz verankert die Rechtsgleichheit und die Nichtdiskriminierung ...

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschriften und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie hat den Fall der Schweiz zum Gegenstand. Die Schweiz verankert die Rechtsgleichheit und die Nichtdiskriminierung in der Bundesverfassung sowie in mehreren Spezialgesetzen, die sich ihrerseits auf bestimmte Diskriminierungsgründe und Rechtsbereiche beschränken. Diese werden hier dargestellt, bevor in einem dritten Teil die reichhaltige Rechtsprechung des Schweizer Bundesgerichts wiedergegeben wird. Abschliessend wird der Rechtsrahmen kritisch analysiert, es wird auf bestehende Lücken sowie auf derzeitige und künftige Reformen hingewiesen.

Autor externo

Dr. Nula FREI, Universität Freiburg

EU Defence Package: Defence Procurement and Intra-Community Transfers Directives

19-10-2020

This study examines the implementation of the European Union (EU) defence package, which consists of the Defence Procurement Directive 2009/81/EC and the Intra-Community Transfers Directive 2009/43/EC, during the period from 2016 to 2020. It is organised in two parts. The first part of the study, prepared internally, examines the evaluations carried out on the implementation of the two directives to identify persisting challenges. It surveys institutional and policy novelties in the field of EU defence ...

This study examines the implementation of the European Union (EU) defence package, which consists of the Defence Procurement Directive 2009/81/EC and the Intra-Community Transfers Directive 2009/43/EC, during the period from 2016 to 2020. It is organised in two parts. The first part of the study, prepared internally, examines the evaluations carried out on the implementation of the two directives to identify persisting challenges. It surveys institutional and policy novelties in the field of EU defence cooperation so as to place the implementation of the two directives in context, and then examines Parliament's oversight work. It goes on to lay out the main elements that are likely to affect the future of EU defence industrial cooperation, and provides options for moving forward. The second part of the study, which was outsourced, is based on primary research (a survey and interviews) and aims to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, relevance and added value of the Defence Procurement Directive and the Intra-Community Transfers Directive. It also seeks to identify limitations and challenges, and explore – where possible – the links between the implementation of the two directives.

Study in focus: Regulatory Sandboxes and Innovation Hubs for FinTech

15-10-2020

The original full study analyses the design and operation of regulatory sandboxes and innovation hubs as part of jurisdictions’ regulatory response to financial innovation, focusing on the models adopted in the EU and the EFTA countries. This document was prepared by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

The original full study analyses the design and operation of regulatory sandboxes and innovation hubs as part of jurisdictions’ regulatory response to financial innovation, focusing on the models adopted in the EU and the EFTA countries. This document was prepared by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

Online Platforms’ Moderation of Illegal Content Online

15-10-2020

The original full study reviews and assesses the EU regulatory framework on content moderation and current practices by key online platforms. It assesses the regulation in six countries/regions and makes recommendations to improve the EU legal framework on content moderation in the context of the forthcoming Digital Services Act.

The original full study reviews and assesses the EU regulatory framework on content moderation and current practices by key online platforms. It assesses the regulation in six countries/regions and makes recommendations to improve the EU legal framework on content moderation in the context of the forthcoming Digital Services Act.

Autor externo

Alexandre DE STREEL et al.

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30-11-2020
EPRS online Book Talk | How to own the room (and the zoom) [...]
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