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In the post-Arab Spring period, Egypt's foreign policy has largely been shaped by the state of affairs in the Middle East and the eastern Mediterranean. Civil wars and unrest have proliferated in the region, creating a knock-on effect felt first by Iraq and then by Syria, Lebanon and Libya. Conflicts in neighbouring countries, often fought by proxies, have affected Cairo's internal political and security interests and influenced Egyptian foreign policy. One such conflict has to do with the persistence ...

Successive negotiation rounds between Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt about the filling and operation of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) have ended in stalemate. This new dam, built by Ethiopia on the Blue Nile (the Nile's main tributary), will bring into operation Africa's largest hydropower plant. It is expected to secure access to electricity for the majority of Ethiopians, to foster economic development and to provide revenues from the sale of surplus electricity abroad. For its part, Sudan ...

Seven years after the 2011 uprising in Egypt, a combination of domestic challenges, together with instability in the Middle East and North Africa region has stalled the country’s ongoing transition. Stability in Egypt is key for the region, and the country’s international partners such as the EU have a clear interest in helping move the country towards stability and prosperity. To that end, this study investigates the main challenges facing Egypt, focusing on social, economic, political and environmental ...

Since 2010 the Eastern Mediterranean region has become a hotspot of international energy discussions due to a series of gas discoveries in the offshore of Israel, Cyprus and Egypt. To exploit this gas potential, a number of export options have progressively been discussed, alongside new regional cooperation scenarios. Hopes have also been expressed about the potential role of new gas discoveries in strengthening not only the regional energy cooperation, but also the overall regional economic and ...

Egypt: A failed revolution?

Lühitutvustus 13-06-2016

The most populous of the Arab countries, situated at the crossroads between Africa and the Middle East, Egypt is an important partner for Europe. Since 2004, bilateral EU-Egypt trade has almost tripled, from €11.8 billion to €27.7 billion in 2015. At the same time, the EU and Egypt share many foreign policy concerns, including the Middle East peace process, migration and the fight against terrorism. Under the revised European Neighbourhood Policy, the challenge will be to reconcile growing EU concerns ...

The new Egyptian parliament

Lühitutvustus 05-02-2016

The new Egyptian legislative assembly, sworn in on 10 January 2016, is likely to be loyal to President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. Two thirds of members have joined the pro-Sisi 'State Support' (Da'am Masr) coalition, led by former intelligence officer Sameh Seif Alyazal. A supporter of the President, Alyazal has openly voiced his intention to limit the powers of the assembly, to weaken its ability to impeach the President. A member of the 'State Support' coalition, Ali Abdelaal, a French-educated lawyer ...

Understanding definitions of terrorism

Lühitutvustus 06-11-2015

The international community remains divided over a universally acceptable definition of terrorism. Despite broad consensus that the threat of terrorism needs to be addressed urgently, the positions adopted by individual countries, regional and international organisations have resulted in a patchwork of approaches. This is primarily due to diverging views on what constitutes terrorism, as opposed to exercising peoples' right to self-determination, as enshrined in the UN Charter.

The human right to water has been firmly established and its implications for policy-making have been discussed in many fields. Thus far, this has hardly been the case for conflicts over water. This study discusses what it means to integrate human rights in the context of governing water and addressing conflicts over water. A human rights perspective on conflicts over water will help formulating equitable water governance strategies. To support such developments, the EU should integrate human rights ...

Created with the objective of promoting democracy and good governance, the African Union has succeeded in creating a robust normative framework and a consistent policy for dealing with coups d’état, which have affected many African countries since their independence. However, the implementation of this policy has not been without difficulties, since there is a need to further improve the efficacy and consistency of the AU’s decisions and hone its normative tools for the handling of more complex cases ...

Johannes Hahn, the recently-confirmed European Commissioner for European Neighbourhood Policy & Enlargement Negotiations, appeared before the European Parliament's Committee for Foreign Affairs (AFET) on 30 September 2014 to answer MEPs' questions. In that hearing and in his answers to the questionnaire prepared for the meeting in advance, Commissioner Hahn made a number of statements of interest to the European Parliament. This document provides a summary of his most salient points.