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Minimum income policies in EU Member states

14-04-2017

This document was prepared by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs to feed into its own-initiative report on “Minimum income policies as a tool to tackle poverty”. It is an update of the previous two studies published in 2007 and in 2011. It provides updated facts and figures on minimum schemes across EU Member States since 2010, an overview of the evolution of poverty and social exclusion and a summary of recent debates across Europe.

This document was prepared by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs to feed into its own-initiative report on “Minimum income policies as a tool to tackle poverty”. It is an update of the previous two studies published in 2007 and in 2011. It provides updated facts and figures on minimum schemes across EU Member States since 2010, an overview of the evolution of poverty and social exclusion and a summary of recent debates across Europe.

Parlamendiväline autor

Chiara CREPALDI, Barbara DA ROIT, Claudio CASTEGNARO, Sergio PASQUINELLI

Labour Market Integration of Refugee: EU Funding Instruments

17-02-2016

The briefing note on EU funding instruments to support labour market integrations of refugees has been prepared by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs. It gives an overview of relevant instruments including those for migrants with a view to the changed situation and needs.

The briefing note on EU funding instruments to support labour market integrations of refugees has been prepared by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs. It gives an overview of relevant instruments including those for migrants with a view to the changed situation and needs.

Economic challenges and prospects of the refugee influx

03-12-2015

The current refugee influx represents the largest population movement in Europe since World War II. Its size and complexity make it difficult to draw conclusions on the economic challenges and prospects valid for each Member State of the European Union (EU). Many experts agree that, in the short term, the refugee influx will lead to rising costs, arising from the need to provide food, shelter and first aid. In the longer term, the refugee influx could be positive for the European economy by, for ...

The current refugee influx represents the largest population movement in Europe since World War II. Its size and complexity make it difficult to draw conclusions on the economic challenges and prospects valid for each Member State of the European Union (EU). Many experts agree that, in the short term, the refugee influx will lead to rising costs, arising from the need to provide food, shelter and first aid. In the longer term, the refugee influx could be positive for the European economy by, for example, addressing the EU's alarming demographic trends. Depending on their education, skills and willingness to work, refugees might improve the ratio of active workers and also contribute to innovation, entrepreneurship and GDP growth. Regarding the labour market, migrants can fill important niches both in fast-growing and declining sectors of the economy, and contribute to labour-market flexibility. Refugee, migration and asylum policy is largely under the auspices of the Member States and intergovernmental EU policy-making. The uncontrolled mass arrival of refugees has highlighted the different views in the Member States on migration and immigration, driven by economic, social and cultural divergences and spurred the debate on a new EU migration policy. According to the European Parliament, the EU and its Member States should target the potential gains from the current influx by, inter alia, successful economic and social integration of the refugees.

Violence against women in the EU: State of play

25-11-2015

Violence against women is a violation of human rights and a form of gender-based discrimination. Rooted in inequalities between men and women, it takes many forms. Estimates about the scale of the problem are alarming. Such violence has a major impact on victims and imposes a significant cost burden on society. The instruments put in place by the United Nations and Council of Europe are benchmarks in efforts to combat violence against women. The EU is tackling the problem in various ways, but ...

Violence against women is a violation of human rights and a form of gender-based discrimination. Rooted in inequalities between men and women, it takes many forms. Estimates about the scale of the problem are alarming. Such violence has a major impact on victims and imposes a significant cost burden on society. The instruments put in place by the United Nations and Council of Europe are benchmarks in efforts to combat violence against women. The EU is tackling the problem in various ways, but has no binding instrument designed specifically to protect women from violence. Although there are similarities between national policies to combat violence against women, the Member States have adopted different approaches to the problem. Parliament’s efforts have focused on strengthening EU policy in the area. Parliament has repeatedly called for a European Union strategy to counter violence against women, including a legally binding instrument. Stakeholders have expressed a range of concerns, such as the impact of the economic crisis, and have highlighted the need for a comprehensive EU political framework on eliminating violence against women. This briefing is an update of an earlier one of February 2014.

The silver economy: Opportunities from ageing

15-07-2015

The 'silver economy' covers a host of different but interlinked strands; together these can improve the quality of life and inclusion in society and involvement in economic activity of the ageing population through developing innovative policies, products and services to meet their needs, bringing more growth and jobs. The concept has been emerging over the years, and recently gathered momentum with the European Commission's first paper on the topic. The population in the EU is ageing due to increasing ...

The 'silver economy' covers a host of different but interlinked strands; together these can improve the quality of life and inclusion in society and involvement in economic activity of the ageing population through developing innovative policies, products and services to meet their needs, bringing more growth and jobs. The concept has been emerging over the years, and recently gathered momentum with the European Commission's first paper on the topic. The population in the EU is ageing due to increasing longevity and low birth rates. The Commission's 2015 Ageing Report forecasts that the EU will move from having four working-age (15-64) people for every person aged over 65 years in 2013, to just two by 2060. Whilst population ageing brings challenges, it also presents opportunities. Euromonitor forecasts that the global spending power of those aged 60+ will reach US$15 trillion by 2020. Annual age related government expenditure on older people (currently nearly 20% of GDP in the EU) is forecast to rise by 1.8 percentage points by 2060. The silver economy concept seeks to look holistically at ageing and the opportunities it presents, bearing on the future direction of a broad range of polices such as those on the built environment, 50+ employment, life-long learning and preventative healthcare. Moreover, it seeks to embrace new technologies (e.g. health monitoring, smart homes, driverless vehicles, and care robots) and use them to lower the costs of ageing and improve the lives of older citizens whilst simultaneously helping to boost the economy.

EU demographic indicators: Situation, trends and potential challenges

18-03-2015

Europe's share of the global population is declining and its population is ageing. Unemployment is still high, although rates vary between Member States, as well as within them. Women, young adults and older workers have a higher risk of unemployment, while the number of part-time workers is increasing. Migrants represent 7% of the European population and account for around 7% of total employment. They are usually younger and more likely to face disproportionately heavy housing costs, to live in ...

Europe's share of the global population is declining and its population is ageing. Unemployment is still high, although rates vary between Member States, as well as within them. Women, young adults and older workers have a higher risk of unemployment, while the number of part-time workers is increasing. Migrants represent 7% of the European population and account for around 7% of total employment. They are usually younger and more likely to face disproportionately heavy housing costs, to live in overcrowded households and to be more materially deprived than nationals, although, within the group, trends diverge between migrants from other EU Member States and third-country migrants. Differences in the distribution of income are observed, although they are still lower than in many other parts of the world. Almost a quarter of Europeans face the risk of poverty or social exclusion, a risk which has a strong geographical dimension and varies among social groups. If current trends persist, there will be an increasing mismatch, with fewer low-skill jobs on offer to growing numbers of low-skilled workers and fewer qualified candidates to meet increasing demand for high-skilled labour. A shrinking workforce will have to provide for a growing number of retired persons. Migration, which is still substantial, may slow down and possibly shift towards developing countries with strong growth. Finally, the middle class may shrink and more wealth be concentrated in the hands of the richest. These trends present an opportunity for debate on concepts such as 'working age', and the adoption of well-designed comprehensive policies that will strengthen social cohesion and promote solidarity between generations.

Poverty risk, inequality and social exclusion

03-12-2014

The distribution of poverty, inequality and social exclusion varies significantly across EU Member States. Based on 2013 data, this infographic shows who is at risk, how equally disposable income is distributed,and how much EU countries spend on specific measures to combat poverty and social exclusion.

The distribution of poverty, inequality and social exclusion varies significantly across EU Member States. Based on 2013 data, this infographic shows who is at risk, how equally disposable income is distributed,and how much EU countries spend on specific measures to combat poverty and social exclusion.

Social impact bonds: Private finance that generates social returns

28-08-2014

Social impact bonds are a results-based form of social impact investment. Private investors provide capital to launch or expand innovative social services that provide a public good. The European Parliament has called for greater use of innovative financing for social benefit and for more specific proposals from the European Commission.

Social impact bonds are a results-based form of social impact investment. Private investors provide capital to launch or expand innovative social services that provide a public good. The European Parliament has called for greater use of innovative financing for social benefit and for more specific proposals from the European Commission.

Pension Schemes

14-08-2014

Large variations exist in the approach to pensions in EU member states. This Policy Department A study aims at providing the EMPL Committee with information about the risks and replacement rates of the different pension schemes. Vulnerable groups are less likely to contribute to individual plans or 'third-pillar' schemes, which complicates a shift in replacement rates from Pillars 1 (aimed at avoiding old age poverty) and 2 (occupational schemes) to Pillar 3. Pillars 1 and 2 should ensure pension ...

Large variations exist in the approach to pensions in EU member states. This Policy Department A study aims at providing the EMPL Committee with information about the risks and replacement rates of the different pension schemes. Vulnerable groups are less likely to contribute to individual plans or 'third-pillar' schemes, which complicates a shift in replacement rates from Pillars 1 (aimed at avoiding old age poverty) and 2 (occupational schemes) to Pillar 3. Pillars 1 and 2 should ensure pension adequacy, leaving Pillar 3 as a tool for individuals to enhance their replacement rates.

Parlamendiväline autor

Karel Lannoo, Mikkel Barslund, Ales Chmelar and Marten von Werder (CEPS)

Austerity and Poverty in the European Union

15-07-2014

Europe faces major social challenges, in which fiscal consolidation may have played a role. This Policy Department A study aims to provide the Committee for Employment and Social Affairs with an analysis of the speed and composition of fiscal consolidation strategies. It describes major social developments in Europe, with a focus on poverty, and considers and interprets the links between fiscal consolidation measures and social developments.

Europe faces major social challenges, in which fiscal consolidation may have played a role. This Policy Department A study aims to provide the Committee for Employment and Social Affairs with an analysis of the speed and composition of fiscal consolidation strategies. It describes major social developments in Europe, with a focus on poverty, and considers and interprets the links between fiscal consolidation measures and social developments.

Parlamendiväline autor

Zsolt DARVAS, Pia HUETTL, Carlos DE SOUSA, Alessio TERZI and Olga TSCHEKASSIN (Bruegel)

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