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EU Defence Package: Defence Procurement and Intra-Community Transfers Directives

19-10-2020

This study examines the implementation of the European Union (EU) defence package, which consists of the Defence Procurement Directive 2009/81/EC and the Intra-Community Transfers Directive 2009/43/EC, during the period from 2016 to 2020. It is organised in two parts. The first part of the study, prepared internally, examines the evaluations carried out on the implementation of the two directives to identify persisting challenges. It surveys institutional and policy novelties in the field of EU defence ...

This study examines the implementation of the European Union (EU) defence package, which consists of the Defence Procurement Directive 2009/81/EC and the Intra-Community Transfers Directive 2009/43/EC, during the period from 2016 to 2020. It is organised in two parts. The first part of the study, prepared internally, examines the evaluations carried out on the implementation of the two directives to identify persisting challenges. It surveys institutional and policy novelties in the field of EU defence cooperation so as to place the implementation of the two directives in context, and then examines Parliament's oversight work. It goes on to lay out the main elements that are likely to affect the future of EU defence industrial cooperation, and provides options for moving forward. The second part of the study, which was outsourced, is based on primary research (a survey and interviews) and aims to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, relevance and added value of the Defence Procurement Directive and the Intra-Community Transfers Directive. It also seeks to identify limitations and challenges, and explore – where possible – the links between the implementation of the two directives.

Military mobility

12-03-2019

Military logistics was defined by Baron Henri de Jomini as 'the practical art of moving armies'. In the event of an unpredictable crisis at any border of the European Union (EU), military personnel and equipment must be able to move rapidly across the territory. Currently, training and the movement of military assets across the continent is severely hampered by the lack of appropriate infrastructure and cumbersome customs procedures. This strategic weakness in European defence cooperation is being ...

Military logistics was defined by Baron Henri de Jomini as 'the practical art of moving armies'. In the event of an unpredictable crisis at any border of the European Union (EU), military personnel and equipment must be able to move rapidly across the territory. Currently, training and the movement of military assets across the continent is severely hampered by the lack of appropriate infrastructure and cumbersome customs procedures. This strategic weakness in European defence cooperation is being addressed by means of action on military mobility: an action plan by the European Commission, a project and commitment under permanent structured cooperation, and a key action for EU-NATO cooperation. Military mobility is meant to ensure the seamless movement of military equipment across the EU by reducing physical, legal and regulatory obstacles.

EU Defence: The White Book implementation process

12-12-2018

The question of a defence White Book at European level has been under discussion for some time. Many voices, particularly in the European Parliament, are pushing for such an initiative, while others consider that it is not only unnecessary, but could even dangerously divide Europeans. Concretely, the question cannot be tackled separately from that of defence planning and processes which underpin the development of military capabilities, as White Books are often the starting point for these. Within ...

The question of a defence White Book at European level has been under discussion for some time. Many voices, particularly in the European Parliament, are pushing for such an initiative, while others consider that it is not only unnecessary, but could even dangerously divide Europeans. Concretely, the question cannot be tackled separately from that of defence planning and processes which underpin the development of military capabilities, as White Books are often the starting point for these. Within the European Union, however, there is not just one, but three types defence planning: the national planning of each of the Member States; planning within the framework of NATO (the NATO Defence Planning Process) and, finally, the European Union’s planning, which has developed in stages since the Helsinki summit of 1999 and comprises many elements. Its best-known component - but by no means not the only one - is the capability development plan established by the European Defence Agency. How do all these different planning systems coexist? What are their strengths and weaknesses? Answering these preliminary questions is essential in mapping the path to a White Book. This is what this study sets out to do.

Parlamendiväline autor

Mr Frédéric MAURO

EU rules on control of arms exports

07-11-2018

The EU's Common Position on arms exports is the only legally binding region-wide arrangement on conventional arms exports. While the Common Position has increased information-sharing and transparency of Member States' arms exports, scope remains to enhance convergence of national policies and for stricter implementation of the criteria defined in the EU text. Following the publication of the EU's 19th annual report on arms exports in February 2018, the European Parliament is due to discuss a report ...

The EU's Common Position on arms exports is the only legally binding region-wide arrangement on conventional arms exports. While the Common Position has increased information-sharing and transparency of Member States' arms exports, scope remains to enhance convergence of national policies and for stricter implementation of the criteria defined in the EU text. Following the publication of the EU's 19th annual report on arms exports in February 2018, the European Parliament is due to discuss a report on the implementation of the Common Position during its November I plenary session.

Instrument contributing to stability and peace: Adaptation for military actors

24-11-2017

The European Commission proposes to amend Regulation (EU) No 230/2014 establishing the Instrument Contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP) to create the conditions to allow EU budgetary support for systematic and longer-term EU support for the security sector in third countries, including the military, through capacity-building programmes, the provision of non-lethal equipment and improvements in infrastructure. Parliament is due to vote on the proposal during the November II plenary session.

The European Commission proposes to amend Regulation (EU) No 230/2014 establishing the Instrument Contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP) to create the conditions to allow EU budgetary support for systematic and longer-term EU support for the security sector in third countries, including the military, through capacity-building programmes, the provision of non-lethal equipment and improvements in infrastructure. Parliament is due to vote on the proposal during the November II plenary session.

ISIL/Da'esh: From Mosul to Mosul

13-07-2017

In June 2014, ISIL/Da'esh took over the city of Mosul in Iraq, and from there declared the advent of an Islamic State. Three years later, in July 2017, after nine months of battle involving Iraqi security forces, popular militias and Kurdish troops, ISIL/Da'esh has been expelled from its Iraqi stronghold, adding to the past two years' severe territorial losses. This is an important victory; however, it does not yet represent the eradication of a terrorist group that still has many supporters.

In June 2014, ISIL/Da'esh took over the city of Mosul in Iraq, and from there declared the advent of an Islamic State. Three years later, in July 2017, after nine months of battle involving Iraqi security forces, popular militias and Kurdish troops, ISIL/Da'esh has been expelled from its Iraqi stronghold, adding to the past two years' severe territorial losses. This is an important victory; however, it does not yet represent the eradication of a terrorist group that still has many supporters.

Japan: Defence and security policy reform

22-01-2016

After a lengthy, fraught parliamentary process, on 20 September 2015 the National Diet of Japan finally approved a long-awaited reform of Japan's defence and security laws. Prime Minister Shinzō Abe’s determination won out against opposition from within Parliament and the public. Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution has been reinterpreted: Japan's Self-Defence Forces can now come to the aid of any ally which is under attack, in particular the US, which has guaranteed Japan's security since the ...

After a lengthy, fraught parliamentary process, on 20 September 2015 the National Diet of Japan finally approved a long-awaited reform of Japan's defence and security laws. Prime Minister Shinzō Abe’s determination won out against opposition from within Parliament and the public. Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution has been reinterpreted: Japan's Self-Defence Forces can now come to the aid of any ally which is under attack, in particular the US, which has guaranteed Japan's security since the end of the Second World War. This change was one of a series of reforms and initiatives, which included setting up a National Security Council, defining a national security strategy, adopting a law on classified information and revising the Principles on Arms Exports. The guidelines for cooperation with the US have also been revised. At the same time, Tokyo has begun to develop its military cooperation with other countries in the region. The purpose of these reforms was to make Japan an 'active contributor to peace' in a regional context overshadowed by Chinese ambitions and the growing nuclear threat from North Korea.

United States and Syria: Strained credibility

15-01-2016

The United States' strategy in Syria has evolved over the five years of the conflict. Currently, the US aim is for a political solution to the civil war, seen as a precondition for the defeat of the ISIL/Da'esh terrorist group. Despite significant US military and diplomatic action, the effectiveness of the US strategy towards Syria and its implementation is widely criticised.

The United States' strategy in Syria has evolved over the five years of the conflict. Currently, the US aim is for a political solution to the civil war, seen as a precondition for the defeat of the ISIL/Da'esh terrorist group. Despite significant US military and diplomatic action, the effectiveness of the US strategy towards Syria and its implementation is widely criticised.

Russia in Syria: Playing for high stakes

15-01-2016

Russia, a staunch ally of Syrian President, Bashar al-Assad, has launched a wave of airstrikes in defence of its significant economic, military and geopolitical interests in the country. While the Syria campaign has helped Russia to project itself as a global player, it also presents significant risks.

Russia, a staunch ally of Syrian President, Bashar al-Assad, has launched a wave of airstrikes in defence of its significant economic, military and geopolitical interests in the country. While the Syria campaign has helped Russia to project itself as a global player, it also presents significant risks.

EU Member States' arms exports (2013)

10-12-2015

This infographic aims to present data on arms exports licensed by EU Member States for the year 2013. The source of data is the 16th Annual Report on arms exports, published by the Council in March 2015, under the common rules governing control of exports of military technology and equipment. It categorises arms based on the 22 categories of military technology and equipment of the EU Common Military List. Data refer to 26 EU Member States, as figures for Cyprus and Greece are not available. This ...

This infographic aims to present data on arms exports licensed by EU Member States for the year 2013. The source of data is the 16th Annual Report on arms exports, published by the Council in March 2015, under the common rules governing control of exports of military technology and equipment. It categorises arms based on the 22 categories of military technology and equipment of the EU Common Military List. Data refer to 26 EU Member States, as figures for Cyprus and Greece are not available. This paper presents the overall value of arms exports licences, and then focuses on the subgroup ‘Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and their ammunition’, representing ML1, ML2 and ML3 of the Common Military List.

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