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Trade and biodiversity

05-06-2020

International trade has a direct impact on EU biodiversity, imported invasive species and pathogens, being an example. Trade also impacts global biodiversity, for instance through the 'virtual' water, land, and deforestation contained in EU imports. Economic theory shows that trade with countries that fail to protect a renewable resource can be detrimental for all. Protecting global biodiversity calls for a variety of instruments, at the EU border as well as in the provisions of preferential agreements ...

International trade has a direct impact on EU biodiversity, imported invasive species and pathogens, being an example. Trade also impacts global biodiversity, for instance through the 'virtual' water, land, and deforestation contained in EU imports. Economic theory shows that trade with countries that fail to protect a renewable resource can be detrimental for all. Protecting global biodiversity calls for a variety of instruments, at the EU border as well as in the provisions of preferential agreements. The EU already includes biodiversity-related non-trade provisions in trade agreements, but these provisions are not legally binding and hardly effective. This is partly explained by the complexity of the issues posed by biodiversity: since there is no simple synthetic indicator, policy instruments are difficult to enforce. However, an effort to specify measurable and verifiable commitments is needed; more binding mechanisms, along with transparent and automatic sanctions in case of non-compliance should be considered.

Parlamendiväline autor

Cecilia BELLORA (CEPII, France), Jean-Christophe BUREAU (AgroParisTech, France), Basak BAYRAMOGLU (INRAE, France), Estelle GOZLAN (INRAE, France), Sébastien JEAN (CEPII and INRAE, Paris)

Environmental liability of companies

15-05-2020

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs, aims at gaining deeper insights into the environmental liability of companies in the European Union. It analyses the role of companies within the Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) and pays attention to potential hurdles that may limit the possibility to hold companies liable for environmental harm. Various remedies to the limited liability of the corporation are discussed ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs, aims at gaining deeper insights into the environmental liability of companies in the European Union. It analyses the role of companies within the Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) and pays attention to potential hurdles that may limit the possibility to hold companies liable for environmental harm. Various remedies to the limited liability of the corporation are discussed and suggestions are formulated to improve access to justice for victims of environmental harm. Specific attention is paid to a balanced regime of mandatory solvency guarantees to support the ELD liabilities of companies.

Parlamendiväline autor

Prof. Dr. Michael G. Faure, Professor of comparative and international environmental law, at Maastricht University and Professor of comparative private law and economics, at Erasmus School of Law in Rotterdam, The Netherlands

New technologies for Eastern Mediterranean offshore gas exploration

03-04-2019

The study examines the evolution of technologies in the offshore exploration and production of hydrocarbons in the Eastern Mediterranean, and their future environmental impact for the region. It finds that new technologies move this stage of natural gas development into increasing digitalisation, better designs for safety equipment, and increased automation. It then proceeds to propose a number of policy measures on collaboration, data sharing, environmental bassline surveys, open digital platforms ...

The study examines the evolution of technologies in the offshore exploration and production of hydrocarbons in the Eastern Mediterranean, and their future environmental impact for the region. It finds that new technologies move this stage of natural gas development into increasing digitalisation, better designs for safety equipment, and increased automation. It then proceeds to propose a number of policy measures on collaboration, data sharing, environmental bassline surveys, open digital platforms, as well as better monitoring for fugitive greenhouse gas emissions. All these will aid in improving the environmental credentials of offshore operations, but they must be accompanied by closer cooperation and collaboration amongst the countries that surround the East Med.

Parlamendiväline autor

DG, EPRS

Veekaitse ja -majandus

01-11-2017

Vesi on hädavajalik inimeste, loomade ja taimede eluks ning asendamatu majanduslik ressurss. Vee kaitse ja -majandus ulatub üle riigipiiride. Euroopa Liidu veeõigus kujundati ümber veepoliitika raamdirektiivi vastuvõtmisega 2000. aastal, millega võeti kasutusele terviklik lähenemine pinnavee ja põhjavee vesikondade põhiseks majandamiseks ja kaitseks. Raamdirektiivi täiendavad rahvusvahelised kokkulepped ning vee kvantiteedi, kvaliteedi ja veereostusega seotud õigusaktid.

Vesi on hädavajalik inimeste, loomade ja taimede eluks ning asendamatu majanduslik ressurss. Vee kaitse ja -majandus ulatub üle riigipiiride. Euroopa Liidu veeõigus kujundati ümber veepoliitika raamdirektiivi vastuvõtmisega 2000. aastal, millega võeti kasutusele terviklik lähenemine pinnavee ja põhjavee vesikondade põhiseks majandamiseks ja kaitseks. Raamdirektiivi täiendavad rahvusvahelised kokkulepped ning vee kvantiteedi, kvaliteedi ja veereostusega seotud õigusaktid.

Kemikaalid

01-11-2017

Kemikaale käsitlevate ELi õigusaktide eesmärk on kaitsta inimtervist ja keskkonda ning vältida kaubandustõkkeid. Nad koosnevad teatavate keemiatoodete kategooriate turustamist ja kasutamist reguleerivatest eeskirjadest, konkreetsete ohtlike ainete ja valmististe turulelaskmise ja kasutamise ühtlustatud piirangute kogumist ning suurõnnetusi ja ohtlike ainete eksporti käsitlevatest eeskirjadest. Peamine sellealane ELi tasandi saavutus on REACHi määrus, millega reguleeritakse selliste ainete registreerimist ...

Kemikaale käsitlevate ELi õigusaktide eesmärk on kaitsta inimtervist ja keskkonda ning vältida kaubandustõkkeid. Nad koosnevad teatavate keemiatoodete kategooriate turustamist ja kasutamist reguleerivatest eeskirjadest, konkreetsete ohtlike ainete ja valmististe turulelaskmise ja kasutamise ühtlustatud piirangute kogumist ning suurõnnetusi ja ohtlike ainete eksporti käsitlevatest eeskirjadest. Peamine sellealane ELi tasandi saavutus on REACHi määrus, millega reguleeritakse selliste ainete registreerimist, hindamist ja autoriseerimist ning nende suhtes kehtivaid piiranguid.

Meretransport: liiklus- ja ohutuseeskirjad

01-11-2017

Meretranspordi ohutusnõudeid on viimastel aastatel oluliselt tõhustatud mitme ELi direktiivi ja määrusega. Eelkõige on selle taga kolm õigusaktide paketti, mis võeti vastu pärast naftatankeritega Erika ja Prestige toimunud õnnetusi.

Meretranspordi ohutusnõudeid on viimastel aastatel oluliselt tõhustatud mitme ELi direktiivi ja määrusega. Eelkõige on selle taga kolm õigusaktide paketti, mis võeti vastu pärast naftatankeritega Erika ja Prestige toimunud õnnetusi.

EU response to the Caribbean hurricanes

20-09-2017

The scenes of devastation caused by recent hurricanes in the Caribbean are a stark reminder of the destructive force of nature. As residents struggle to rebuild their lives following the passage of the latest storms, attention turns to the relief efforts. The EU can help through emergency humanitarian assistance and a variety of funding mechanisms, depending on the status of the territories concerned and their relationship with the EU.

The scenes of devastation caused by recent hurricanes in the Caribbean are a stark reminder of the destructive force of nature. As residents struggle to rebuild their lives following the passage of the latest storms, attention turns to the relief efforts. The EU can help through emergency humanitarian assistance and a variety of funding mechanisms, depending on the status of the territories concerned and their relationship with the EU.

Töötervishoid ja tööohutus

01-06-2017

EL hakkas töötervishoiu ja tööohutuse parandamist tähtsustama 1980. aastatel. Euroopa tasandil on õigusaktidega sätestatud töötajate kaitseks miinimumnõuded, kuid liikmesriigid võivad jätta alles või kehtestada rangemad meetmed. Lissaboni lepingu jõustumisel muutus Euroopa Liidu põhiõiguste harta õiguslikult siduvaks, mistõttu sai töötervishoiust ja tööohutusest ELi õigustikus veelgi olulisem valdkond.

EL hakkas töötervishoiu ja tööohutuse parandamist tähtsustama 1980. aastatel. Euroopa tasandil on õigusaktidega sätestatud töötajate kaitseks miinimumnõuded, kuid liikmesriigid võivad jätta alles või kehtestada rangemad meetmed. Lissaboni lepingu jõustumisel muutus Euroopa Liidu põhiõiguste harta õiguslikult siduvaks, mistõttu sai töötervishoiust ja tööohutusest ELi õigustikus veelgi olulisem valdkond.

Proceedings of the Workshop on Reforming Single Market for fertilising products

15-03-2017

The workshop organised by the Policy Department A for the IMCO Committee aimed at discussing the revision of the fertilisers’ regulation proposed by the European Commission and its possible implications for producers, farmers and other users. It allowed exchange of views on the new regulatory proposal. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

The workshop organised by the Policy Department A for the IMCO Committee aimed at discussing the revision of the fertilisers’ regulation proposed by the European Commission and its possible implications for producers, farmers and other users. It allowed exchange of views on the new regulatory proposal. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

Parlamendiväline autor

Piotr KWIATKOWSKI, Osnabrück University and Aneta WIEWIÓROWSKA-DOMAGALSKA, Osnabrück University

Food contact materials

27-09-2016

Food is considered to be one of the most important sources of human exposure to chemicals. The safety of materials coming into contact with food should therefore be carefully evaluated, as chemicals from these can migrate into food. The European Parliament’s Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) has drafted an own-initiative report highlighting the problems related to the implementation of the Food Contact Materials Regulation, and this is due to be debated during the ...

Food is considered to be one of the most important sources of human exposure to chemicals. The safety of materials coming into contact with food should therefore be carefully evaluated, as chemicals from these can migrate into food. The European Parliament’s Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) has drafted an own-initiative report highlighting the problems related to the implementation of the Food Contact Materials Regulation, and this is due to be debated during the October I plenary session.

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