17

vaste(t)

Sõna(d)
Väljaande liik
Poliitikavaldkond
Autor
Märksõna
Kuupäev

The platform economy and precarious work

11-09-2020

Platform work has rapidly developed since it first emerged in the EU, though concerns have been raised about the employment and working conditions of platform work and the risk of precariousness it entails. Platform work has, therefore, been identified as a policy priority by European policy-makers. This study presents an analytical literature review that focuses on the challenges and risks of precariousness of platform work and explores possible pathways for EU action. It covers aspects of the ...

Platform work has rapidly developed since it first emerged in the EU, though concerns have been raised about the employment and working conditions of platform work and the risk of precariousness it entails. Platform work has, therefore, been identified as a policy priority by European policy-makers. This study presents an analytical literature review that focuses on the challenges and risks of precariousness of platform work and explores possible pathways for EU action. It covers aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was prepared at the request of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament.

Parlamendiväline autor

Harald Hauben (ed.), Karolien Lenaerts,Willem Waeyaert

EU policies – Delivering for citizens: Transport policy

14-02-2020

Transport is a strategic sector of the EU economy. Essential to ensuring free movement, it enables people and goods to overcome distances, borders and natural barriers, directly affecting the everyday lives of all EU citizens. Maintaining the flow of goods from producers and manufacturers to consumers makes efficient transport systems a backbone of European integration. For the single market to function well in all regions, the EU needs sustainable, efficient and fully interconnected transport networks ...

Transport is a strategic sector of the EU economy. Essential to ensuring free movement, it enables people and goods to overcome distances, borders and natural barriers, directly affecting the everyday lives of all EU citizens. Maintaining the flow of goods from producers and manufacturers to consumers makes efficient transport systems a backbone of European integration. For the single market to function well in all regions, the EU needs sustainable, efficient and fully interconnected transport networks. As the demand for transport services grows, reducing transport emissions and negative impacts on human health and the environment has become one of the main challenges. New technologies, such as digitalisation, and connected and automated mobility, open new possibilities to improve transport safety, security and efficiency, and to reduce emissions, but also transform the employment in the sector in terms of working conditions and required skills. Collaborative economy developments, such as car-sharing and bike-sharing services are changing user behaviour and mobility patterns. EU transport policy needs to help the sector cut emissions drastically by running on less and cleaner energy, utilise modern infrastructure, and reduce its impact on the environment. The new President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, has put transport on a fast track towards becoming decarbonised and digital. This transformation is to be a key part of her European Green Deal and 'making Europe fit for the digital age' priorities. In 2020, the Commission will propose a 'climate law', committing the EU to becoming climate neutral by 2050. The European Council has endorsed this objective and Parliament had already called for ambitious goals and a corresponding long-term EU budget. While concrete steps towards this ambitious goal remain to be defined, it will require a step change to make transport modern, sustainable and decarbonised.

Artificial intelligence in transport: Current and future developments, opportunities and challenges

27-03-2019

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities ...

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities come real challenges, including unintended consequences and misuse such as cyber-attacks and biased decisions about transport. There are also ramifications for employment, and ethical questions regarding liability for the decisions taken by artificial intelligence in the place of humans. The EU is taking steps to adapt its regulatory framework to these developments, so that it supports innovation while at the same time ensuring respect for fundamental values and rights. The measures already taken include general strategies on artificial intelligence and rules that support the technologies enabling the application of artificial intelligence in transport. In addition, the EU provides financial support, in particular for research.

Cooperatives: Characteristics, activities, status, challenges

26-02-2019

Cooperatives are autonomous associations of people aspiring to achieve their objectives through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. International organisations, such as the United Nations and the European Union (EU), value the role cooperatives play for society, the economy and (international) development. There are 3 million cooperatives worldwide; together, they provide employment for 280 million people, equating to 10 % of the world's employed population. The 300 largest ...

Cooperatives are autonomous associations of people aspiring to achieve their objectives through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. International organisations, such as the United Nations and the European Union (EU), value the role cooperatives play for society, the economy and (international) development. There are 3 million cooperatives worldwide; together, they provide employment for 280 million people, equating to 10 % of the world's employed population. The 300 largest cooperatives and mutuals in the world had a total turnover of US$2.018 trillion in 2016. In the EU there are some 131 000 cooperatives, with more than 4.3 million employees and an annual turnover of €992 billion. While cooperatives have grown in importance for the (social) economy over the past four decades, they face both long-standing and new challenges, resulting from globalisation or the presence of myriad national laws, but also from organisational and governance issues. Cooperatives have become more product-based and less region-based (in terms of member representation). In addition, cross-border-oriented cooperatives and producer organisations often experience legal uncertainty because of the absence or inconsistent application of international legislation. Policy- and law-makers are currently discussing a number of initiatives aimed at creating a level playing field for cooperatives, both in the EU and globally, that would allow them to compete with investor-oriented firms without giving up their social and cultural orientation. An enabling European legal framework could provide transversal recognition of the cooperative business model across the different sectors of the economy. While small and emerging cooperatives need more targeted funding, and assistance with capacity-building and organisational aspects, larger cooperatives require more EU and national-level support in order to achieve their aims in terms of professionalisation.

Latest on the digital economy [What Think Tanks are thinking]

20-07-2018

The digital revolution, which is reshaping the global economy and societies, offers numerous opportunities, but also poses many challenges, thereby putting governments in a dilemma on how to shape it. While empowering individuals in many ways and spurring impressive inventions, it poses threats of cyber-attacks and privacy abuse. It also raises concern about the future of the labour and social security markets. This note offers links to commentaries and studies on the digital economy by major international ...

The digital revolution, which is reshaping the global economy and societies, offers numerous opportunities, but also poses many challenges, thereby putting governments in a dilemma on how to shape it. While empowering individuals in many ways and spurring impressive inventions, it poses threats of cyber-attacks and privacy abuse. It also raises concern about the future of the labour and social security markets. This note offers links to commentaries and studies on the digital economy by major international think tanks. Earlier papers on the same topic can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are Thinking', published in May 2017.

The collaborative economy and taxation: Taxing the value created in the collaborative economy

28-02-2018

EU citizens' daily lives have been changed by the emerging collaborative economy. However, the terms employed to describe the phenomenon are as many and varied as the interpretations of what the collaborative economy actually comprises. The collaborative economy encompasses many situations that do not match the standard business categories and types of transactions. The collaborative economy blurs the lines, not least as regards taxation. For policy-makers to understand how taxation of the collaborative ...

EU citizens' daily lives have been changed by the emerging collaborative economy. However, the terms employed to describe the phenomenon are as many and varied as the interpretations of what the collaborative economy actually comprises. The collaborative economy encompasses many situations that do not match the standard business categories and types of transactions. The collaborative economy blurs the lines, not least as regards taxation. For policy-makers to understand how taxation of the collaborative economy can be put into practice requires fighting the surrounding fog of terms and categories. Privileging a case-by-base and tax-by-tax, rather than a straightforward 'one-size-fits-all' approach, is a prerequisite for grasping the potential benefits of this fast-evolving and multifaceted reality.

The Platform Economy [What Think Tanks are thinking]

16-02-2018

The digital revolution is reshaping the world, changing people's habits in communication, work, leisure and politics. A major part of this revolution is the expansion of the economy based on digital platforms that match demand and supply for labour without an intermediation of traditional corporations. Platforms also allow people to socialise regardless of geographic distance, find entertainment and travel opportunities easily, and do many other things. Some well-known platforms are Google, Twitter ...

The digital revolution is reshaping the world, changing people's habits in communication, work, leisure and politics. A major part of this revolution is the expansion of the economy based on digital platforms that match demand and supply for labour without an intermediation of traditional corporations. Platforms also allow people to socialise regardless of geographic distance, find entertainment and travel opportunities easily, and do many other things. Some well-known platforms are Google, Twitter, Linkedin, Apple, Amazon, Uber and AirBnB. While offering vast opportunities to the economy, platforms are also posing tough challenges, for example, in fostering often-precarious, project-based forms of employment at the expense of stable contracts with social security protection, or putting pressure on traditional news media. This note brings together commentaries and studies by international think tanks and research institutes on the role of digital platforms, notably in labour markets, and related issues.

Study in Focus: The Social Protection of Workers in the Platform Economy

21-12-2017

This note, prepared by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs, summarises the background on the phenomenon of platform work, and introduces the focus and the key findings of the recent study "The Social Protection of Workers in the Platform Economy". It then lists the key recommendations of the study to give the interested audience a quick overview on the main findings of the study.

This note, prepared by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs, summarises the background on the phenomenon of platform work, and introduces the focus and the key findings of the recent study "The Social Protection of Workers in the Platform Economy". It then lists the key recommendations of the study to give the interested audience a quick overview on the main findings of the study.

Digital Services in the Area of Accommodation and Transportation: Economic and Legal Aspects

15-12-2017

This paper examines the development of digital business models in the provision of flights and short-term accommodation services. It discusses the growing importance of digital intermediaries and their associated business model features, some of which provide significant value, and others which could be considered deleterious and in need of regulatory scrutiny. The paper concludes with some suggestions for regulation based on technology, algorithms and big data analytics. This could enable a more ...

This paper examines the development of digital business models in the provision of flights and short-term accommodation services. It discusses the growing importance of digital intermediaries and their associated business model features, some of which provide significant value, and others which could be considered deleterious and in need of regulatory scrutiny. The paper concludes with some suggestions for regulation based on technology, algorithms and big data analytics. This could enable a more soft-touch, automatic, dynamic and individualised approach to regulation. This research paper has been commissioned by Policy Department at the request of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee.

Parlamendiväline autor

Prof. Dr. Stuart John BARNE

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - December 2017

11-12-2017

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Eelseisvad üritused

20-01-2021
EPRS online policy roundtable with the World Bank: Where next for the global economy
Muu sündmus -
EPRS
25-01-2021
Public Hearing on "Gender aspects of precarious work"
Kuulamine -
FEMM
27-01-2021
Public hearing on AI and Green Deal
Kuulamine -
AIDA

Partnerid