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Erasmus 2021-2027: The Union programme for education, training, youth and sport

10-05-2021

The Erasmus 2021-2027 proposal was published on 30 May 2018. Establishing a new programme ensures the continuation of the Erasmus+ funding programme for education, training, youth and sport. While Erasmus+ 2014-2020 offered mobility opportunities to more than 4 million people, the new programming period aims to reach up to 12 million participants. The new generation programme will maintain a lifelong learning approach and will work towards the adoption of a European Education Area by 2025. Flagship ...

The Erasmus 2021-2027 proposal was published on 30 May 2018. Establishing a new programme ensures the continuation of the Erasmus+ funding programme for education, training, youth and sport. While Erasmus+ 2014-2020 offered mobility opportunities to more than 4 million people, the new programming period aims to reach up to 12 million participants. The new generation programme will maintain a lifelong learning approach and will work towards the adoption of a European Education Area by 2025. Flagship initiatives include the European University Networks and the European Student Card. The new regulation also focuses on inclusion and aims at greater simplification for end-users. It incorporates sports in the main structure of the programme, expands the use of digitalisation, supports new areas of knowledge and introduces DiscoverEU, a new mobility initiative. Stakeholders agree that the previous programme has been highly beneficial but lessons need to be learnt to help the next generation programme run more efficiently and effectively.

Primacy's Twilight? On the Legal Consequences of the Ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court of 5 May 2020 for the Primacy of EU Law

27-04-2021

The study analyses the repercussions of the judgment of the German Federal Constitutional Court of 5 May 2020. It puts the decision into context, makes a normative assessment, analyses possible consequences and makes some policy recommendations.

The study analyses the repercussions of the judgment of the German Federal Constitutional Court of 5 May 2020. It puts the decision into context, makes a normative assessment, analyses possible consequences and makes some policy recommendations.

Parlamendiväline autor

Niels Petersen - Konstantin Chatziathanasiou

Just Transition Fund

21-04-2021

The EU aims to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 % by 2030 and achieve climate neutrality by 2050. This will require a socio-economic transformation in regions relying on fossil fuels and high-emission industries. As part of the European Green Deal, on 14 January 2020, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation to create the Just Transition Fund, aimed at supporting EU regions most affected by the transition to a low carbon economy. In the context of recovery from the coronavirus ...

The EU aims to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 % by 2030 and achieve climate neutrality by 2050. This will require a socio-economic transformation in regions relying on fossil fuels and high-emission industries. As part of the European Green Deal, on 14 January 2020, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation to create the Just Transition Fund, aimed at supporting EU regions most affected by the transition to a low carbon economy. In the context of recovery from the coronavirus pandemic, an amended proposal on the Just Transition Fund (JTF) was published on 28 May 2020. The JTF is set to have a budget of €17.5 billion (€7.5 billion from the core EU budget under the Multiannual Financial Framework and €10 billion from the Next Generation EU instrument, in 2018 prices). Funding will be available to all Member States, while focusing on regions with the biggest transition challenges. The proposed budget for the Just Transition Fund may be complemented with resources from cohesion policy funds and national co financing. The Fund will be part of a Just Transition Mechanism, which also includes resources under InvestEU and a public-sector loan facility. In the European Parliament, the file has been entrusted to the Committee on Regional Development (REGI). A provisional political agreement was reached in trilogue on 9 December 2020. The Parliament is expected to vote on the text of the regulation during its May 2021 plenary session.

Rail passengers' rights and obligations in the EU

09-04-2021

In 2007, the EU established a set of basic rights for rail passengers, which became applicable at the end of 2009. These rights provide for all passengers, including those with reduced mobility, a harmonised minimum level of protection, information and assistance. Reports have concluded that the implementation of these rights, although relatively smooth, is not done uniformly across the EU. Moreover, other shortcomings have prevented these rights from being used to their full potential. In September ...

In 2007, the EU established a set of basic rights for rail passengers, which became applicable at the end of 2009. These rights provide for all passengers, including those with reduced mobility, a harmonised minimum level of protection, information and assistance. Reports have concluded that the implementation of these rights, although relatively smooth, is not done uniformly across the EU. Moreover, other shortcomings have prevented these rights from being used to their full potential. In September 2017, the European Commission presented a new proposal to address these issues and to strike a new balance between keeping rail operators competitive and providing adequate passenger protection. The European Parliament adopted its first-reading position on this proposal on 15 November 2018. For its part, the Council adopted its general approach on 2 December 2019, under the Finnish Presidency. Interinstitutional negotiations began at the end of January 2020, and on 1 October 2020, under the Germany Presidency, Council and Parliament reached a provisional agreement on the text. On 16 March 2021, the European Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism voted in favour of the agreed text as adopted by the Council. After more than three years of debate, the Parliament is expected to vote at second reading on this rather controversial proposal during its April 2021 plenary session.

European Maritime and Fisheries Fund 2021-2027

06-04-2021

As part of the EU budget framework for the 2021-2027 period, the European Commission proposed in June 2018 a regulation to continue the fund dedicated to the Common Fisheries Policy and the Integrated Maritime Policy. On 4 April 2019, Parliament adopted its first reading position on the file. After lengthy interinstitutional negotiations, started after the 2019 elections, political agreement was reached on 4 December 2020. The new fund allows for more flexibility in national programmes. A greater ...

As part of the EU budget framework for the 2021-2027 period, the European Commission proposed in June 2018 a regulation to continue the fund dedicated to the Common Fisheries Policy and the Integrated Maritime Policy. On 4 April 2019, Parliament adopted its first reading position on the file. After lengthy interinstitutional negotiations, started after the 2019 elections, political agreement was reached on 4 December 2020. The new fund allows for more flexibility in national programmes. A greater focus on aquaculture is reflected in its inclusion in the name of the fund. A thorny issue in the negotiations was support for investment in fishing vessels, on which the co legislators wanted to go beyond the proposal. The compromise allows aid for vessels up to 24 metres long: support for the first acquisition of a vessel by a young fisherman, the replacement or modernisation of engines, and operations that improve safety, working conditions or energy efficiency. The measures come with restrictive conditions, such as the respect of fishing capacity ceilings. At least 15 % of Member States' allocations should be spent on control and data collection. The agreed text was endorsed by the Committee on Fisheries on 22 February 2021. After adoption by the Council, Parliament is expected to adopt the text and complete the procedure at second reading.

InvestEU programme: The EU's new investment support scheme

30-03-2021

The InvestEU programme is a single investment support mechanism for the 2021-2027 period. It brings together various EU financial instruments for internal policies previously supported by different funds and programmes of the EU budget. On 26 March 2021, the InvestEU Regulation entered into force, with retroactive application from 1 January 2021. The EU guarantee, set at €26.2 billion, is expected to mobilise at least €372 billion of investment across the EU (in current prices). In addition, at Parliament's ...

The InvestEU programme is a single investment support mechanism for the 2021-2027 period. It brings together various EU financial instruments for internal policies previously supported by different funds and programmes of the EU budget. On 26 March 2021, the InvestEU Regulation entered into force, with retroactive application from 1 January 2021. The EU guarantee, set at €26.2 billion, is expected to mobilise at least €372 billion of investment across the EU (in current prices). In addition, at Parliament's insistence, European Investment Bank legacy portfolios will be consolidated with InvestEU, which could mobilise an extra €35-40 billion in investment. Under the national compartment, Member States are able to allocate amounts to InvestEU from funds under shared management and from the new Recovery and Resilience Facility. Composed of four policy windows (sustainable infrastructure; research, innovation and digitalisation; SMEs; and social investment and skills), InvestEU is designed to contribute to the green transition in various ways, including through investment targets and a horizontal Just Transition Scheme.

Review of EU Enforcement Regulation for trade disputes

19-03-2021

On 12 December 2019, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend Regulation (EU) No 654/2014 concerning the exercise of the EU's rights for the application and enforcement of international trade rules ('the Enforcement Regulation') of 15 May 2014. The Enforcement Regulation enables the EU to suspend or withdraw concessions or other obligations under international trade agreements in order to respond to breaches by third countries of international trade rules that affect the EU's commercial ...

On 12 December 2019, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend Regulation (EU) No 654/2014 concerning the exercise of the EU's rights for the application and enforcement of international trade rules ('the Enforcement Regulation') of 15 May 2014. The Enforcement Regulation enables the EU to suspend or withdraw concessions or other obligations under international trade agreements in order to respond to breaches by third countries of international trade rules that affect the EU's commercial interests. The proposed amendments were aimed at empowering the EU to impose counter-measures in situations where EU trade partners violate international trade rules and block the dispute settlement procedures included in multilateral, regional and bilateral trade agreements, thus preventing the EU from obtaining final binding rulings in its favour. - The Council adopted its negotiating position on 8 April 2020, and the Committee on International Trade (INTA) of the European Parliament adopted its position on 6 July 2020. Trilogue negotiations concluded on 28 October with a provisional agreement, which INTA endorsed on 10 November. Parliament adopted the agreed text on 19 January 2021. Following the Council's approval, the Regulation as amended entered into force on 13 February 2021. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Revision of the Eurovignette Directive

11-03-2021

The Commission adopted a legislative proposal for a directive amending Directive 1999/62/EC on the charging of heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain infrastructures (known as the Eurovignette Directive) in May 2017. The proposal was presented within the context of the Commission's 'Europe on the move' package that sought to modernise mobility and transport and included several legislative proposals. The objective of the Eurovignette proposal, which would substantially amend the existing legislation ...

The Commission adopted a legislative proposal for a directive amending Directive 1999/62/EC on the charging of heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain infrastructures (known as the Eurovignette Directive) in May 2017. The proposal was presented within the context of the Commission's 'Europe on the move' package that sought to modernise mobility and transport and included several legislative proposals. The objective of the Eurovignette proposal, which would substantially amend the existing legislation by extending the scope of vehicles covered, is to make progress in the application of the 'polluter pays' and 'user pays' principles. The Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) of the European Parliament, in charge of the file, adopted its report on 24 May 2018 and the Parliament adopted its first-reading position on 25 October 2018. After the 2019 European elections, the TRAN committee voted in favour of opening negotiations with the Council. The Council, on its side, started discussions on the proposal at the end of 2017 and after a standstill of one year, resumed them in 2019. After several compromise proposals and improvements by the Croatian and German Presidencies, the Council approved its negotiating mandate on the proposal on 18 December 2020. Interinstitutional negotiations began at the end of January 2021 and are expected to be complicated.

Recasting the Return Directive

11-03-2021

The Return Directive is the main piece of EU (European Union) legislation governing the procedures and criteria to be applied by Member States when returning irregularly staying third-country nationals, and a cornerstone of EU return policy. Taking into account the decrease in the EU return rate (from 45.8 % in 2016 to 28.9 % in 2019) and following European Council and Council calls to review the 2008 legal text to enhance the effectiveness of EU return policy, in September 2018 the Commission proposed ...

The Return Directive is the main piece of EU (European Union) legislation governing the procedures and criteria to be applied by Member States when returning irregularly staying third-country nationals, and a cornerstone of EU return policy. Taking into account the decrease in the EU return rate (from 45.8 % in 2016 to 28.9 % in 2019) and following European Council and Council calls to review the 2008 legal text to enhance the effectiveness of EU return policy, in September 2018 the Commission proposed a targeted recast of the directive aiming to 'reduce the length of return procedures, secure a better link between asylum and return procedures, and ensure a more effective use of measures to prevent absconding'. In the 2014-2019 parliamentary term, whereas the Council reached a partial general approach on the proposal, the European Parliament did not reach a position. A draft report was presented to the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) but was not adopted. After the 2019 elections, Parliament decided to resume work on the proposal. A new draft report was published on 21 February 2020, but it was not presented in the LIBE committee until 10 September 2020 on account of delays caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. The deadline for tabling amendments expired on 23 September 2020 and the LIBE committee is currently considering the 754 amendments tabled. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Online platforms: Economic and societal effects

10-03-2021

Online platforms such as Google, Amazon, and Facebook play an increasingly central role in the economy and society. They operate as digital intermediaries across interconnected sectors and markets subject to network effects. These firms have grown to an unprecedented scale, propelled by data-driven business models. Online platforms have a massive impact on individual users and businesses, and are recasting the relationships between customers, advertisers, workers, and employers. This has triggered ...

Online platforms such as Google, Amazon, and Facebook play an increasingly central role in the economy and society. They operate as digital intermediaries across interconnected sectors and markets subject to network effects. These firms have grown to an unprecedented scale, propelled by data-driven business models. Online platforms have a massive impact on individual users and businesses, and are recasting the relationships between customers, advertisers, workers, and employers. This has triggered a public debate on online platforms’ economic dominance and patterns of pervasive data collection. The report provides evidence of positive impact, and documents a set of important issues not fully addressed by existing European regulation and enforcement. The consensus is that there is a need to strengthen the current law enforcement and regulation of the platform economy. This report welcomes the proposed Digital Markets and Digital Services Acts, and offers a series of policy options for competition and innovation, working conditions and labour markets, consumer and societal risks, and environmental sustainability.

Parlamendiväline autor

DG, EPRS_This study has been written by Professor Annabelle Gawer, Surrey Business School, University of Surrey (main author), Dr Nick Srnicek, King's College London, at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

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