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Mali: Yet another coup

16-06-2021

On 24 May 2021, the Malian transitional government suffered a coup – the second in nine months – which cast a shadow on the transition process that should lead to a presidential election in early 2022. These developments risk further destabilising the Sahel and challenge the implementation of the new EU strategy in the region.

On 24 May 2021, the Malian transitional government suffered a coup – the second in nine months – which cast a shadow on the transition process that should lead to a presidential election in early 2022. These developments risk further destabilising the Sahel and challenge the implementation of the new EU strategy in the region.

The EU Approach on Migration in the Mediterranean

11-06-2021

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee , examines the EU approach on migration in the Mediterranean, covering developments from the 2015 refugee crisis up to the Covid-19 pandemic, assessing the effect these events have had on the design, implementation, and reform of EU policy on asylum, migration and external border control, and documenting the ramifications these changes have had ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee , examines the EU approach on migration in the Mediterranean, covering developments from the 2015 refugee crisis up to the Covid-19 pandemic, assessing the effect these events have had on the design, implementation, and reform of EU policy on asylum, migration and external border control, and documenting the ramifications these changes have had on the actors who operate and are impacted by these policies, including immigration authorities, civil society organisations, and the migrants themselves. The study includes a review of the state of play of relevant EU asylum and migration legislation and its implementation, an appraisal of the situation in the Mediterranean, and a thorough examination of the external dimension of the EU migration, asylum and border policies, focusing on cooperation with third countries (Turkey, Libya and Niger), incorporating human rights and refugee law considerations and an analysis of the implications of funding allocations under the EU Trust Fund for Africa and the Refugee Facility in Turkey. The main goal is to test the correct application of EU and international law, having regard to increased allegations of human rights violations, undue criminalisation, and complicity of the EU in atrocity crimes committed against migrants at sea, stranded in Libya, or contained in Niger and Turkey. The role of EU agencies (Frontex and EASO) is also assessed alongside the bilateral or multi-lateral initiatives adopted by MS to confront the mounting challenges at the common external borders of the EU, incorporating the principle of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility (Article 80 TFEU) as a horizontal concern.

Parlamendiväline autor

Violeta MORENO-LAX,Jennifer ALLSOPP,Evangelia (Lilian) TSOURDI,Philippe DE BRUYCKER,Andreina DE LEO

Preparing the CSDP for the new security environment created by climate change

10-06-2021

While the European Union has developed a number of policy commitments and instruments to deal with the nexus between climate change and security, the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) has lagged behind. This study discusses the security implications of climate change in the EU Neighbourhood and makes recommendations concerning how the CSDP might integrate climate factors into its mission and deliverables. The CSDP will need to adopt a place-specific approach that foregrounds the distinctive ...

While the European Union has developed a number of policy commitments and instruments to deal with the nexus between climate change and security, the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) has lagged behind. This study discusses the security implications of climate change in the EU Neighbourhood and makes recommendations concerning how the CSDP might integrate climate factors into its mission and deliverables. The CSDP will need to adopt a place-specific approach that foregrounds the distinctive social, political and economic dynamics through which climate factors makes themselves felt in different partner countries. The analysis looks in particular depth at the Sahel and the Horn of Africa as two regions where CSDP missions already operate or are likely to operate in the future. Countries in these regions are highly vulnerable to the interaction between a degraded environment and climate change impacts, raising the prospects of humanitarian crises due to food insecurity and internal instability due to competition for resources. These problems compound the EU’s prominent security concerns of terrorism and migration. The EU can move to climate-proof the CSDP through better conflict intelligence and foresight, carefully adapted and adequately resourced mandates, climate-change proofing investments in equipment and infrastructure, and better links to local social and institutional dynamics. The European Parliament should deploy its considerable political capital to support such initiatives, through resolutions, engagement with the UN and other inter-parliamentary fora, and efforts to garner political commitment from the Member States.

Parlamendiväline autor

•Christoph MEYER, Professor of Professor of European & International Politics, King’s College London •Francesca VANTAGGIATO, Lecturer in Public Policy, King’s College London, •Richard YOUNGS, Senior Fellow, Carnegie Europe and Professor of International Relations, University of Warwick

European Solidarity Corps 2021-2027

12-05-2021

The European Solidarity Corps is included under Heading 5, 'Promoting our European way of life', of the European Commission's priorities for the current mandate. Initially, the programme suffered from unsuccessful branding and communication as it competed with other long-standing programmes that carried out similar activities. With the current proposed regulation, the programme will become a single one-stop shop for all solidarity and humanitarian volunteering opportunities for young people. The ...

The European Solidarity Corps is included under Heading 5, 'Promoting our European way of life', of the European Commission's priorities for the current mandate. Initially, the programme suffered from unsuccessful branding and communication as it competed with other long-standing programmes that carried out similar activities. With the current proposed regulation, the programme will become a single one-stop shop for all solidarity and humanitarian volunteering opportunities for young people. The European Parliament is expected to vote at second reading during its May plenary session on the agreed text resulting from interinstitutional negotiations.

A new EU-Africa Strategy – A partnership for sustainable and inclusive development

22-03-2021

The European Union (EU) and the African Union (AU) have converging interests in a number of areas, such as the fight against climate change and the promotion of sustainable, job-creating economic growth in Africa. However, they still have to find common ground on migration, security management, and fundamental values. In March 2020, the European Commission and the High Representative of the EU for Foreign and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission (HR/VP) proposed to build ...

The European Union (EU) and the African Union (AU) have converging interests in a number of areas, such as the fight against climate change and the promotion of sustainable, job-creating economic growth in Africa. However, they still have to find common ground on migration, security management, and fundamental values. In March 2020, the European Commission and the High Representative of the EU for Foreign and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission (HR/VP) proposed to build a new and comprehensive partnership with Africa, emphasising the EU's will to strengthen the links between the two continents. In line with this proposed partnership, the European Parliament is expected to discuss on an own-initiative report during its March II plenary session.

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - February 2021

04-02-2021

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

International Agreements in Progress - After Cotonou: Towards a new agreement with the African, Caribbean and Pacific states

20-01-2021

The Cotonou partnership agreement between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) states was due to expire in February 2020. The then ACP Group of States – which later became the Organisation of the ACP States (OACPS) – and the EU started negotiations for a 'post-Cotonou' agreement in September 2018. This time around, the main challenge for the EU is to maintain its cooperation with the three OACPS sub-regions and to continue to promote the values enshrined in the EU ...

The Cotonou partnership agreement between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) states was due to expire in February 2020. The then ACP Group of States – which later became the Organisation of the ACP States (OACPS) – and the EU started negotiations for a 'post-Cotonou' agreement in September 2018. This time around, the main challenge for the EU is to maintain its cooperation with the three OACPS sub-regions and to continue to promote the values enshrined in the EU Treaties. At the same time, the new partnership should take into account the United Nations' sustainable development goals, the redefinition of the EU's strategies for the regions concerned, the ACP states' new ambitions and the changing balance of power at the global level. Both the EU and the OACPS have agreed on the principle of a common foundation complemented by three regional protocols. These multi-level negotiations, the coronavirus crisis and difficulties in reaching agreement on sensitive issues, such as migration management and sexual and reproductive health and rights, prevented the new agreement from being finalised by the initial expiry date set in the Cotonou Agreement. Thus, to avoid a legal vacuum in relations, the provisions of this agreement were extended until the end of 2021. After two years of negotiations, a political deal was reached in December 2020, including on the most complex issues. The European Parliament insisted on maintaining the ACP-EU joint parliamentary assembly and was successful in this endeavour; in addition, three regional parliamentary assemblies will be created in the future institutional set-up of the partnership.

The use of pesticides in developing countries and their impact on health and the right to food

08-01-2021

This study provides a broad perspective on the main trends regarding the use of pesticides in developing countries and their impacts on human health and food security. Information is provided on the challenges of controlling these hazardous substances, along with the extent to which pesticides banned within the European Union (EU) are exported to third countries. The analysis assesses the factors behind the continuation of these exports, along with the rising demand for better controls. Recommendations ...

This study provides a broad perspective on the main trends regarding the use of pesticides in developing countries and their impacts on human health and food security. Information is provided on the challenges of controlling these hazardous substances, along with the extent to which pesticides banned within the European Union (EU) are exported to third countries. The analysis assesses the factors behind the continuation of these exports, along with the rising demand for better controls. Recommendations are intended to improve the ability for all people, including future generations, to have access to healthy food in line with United Nations declarations. These recommendations include collaborating with the Rotterdam Convention to strengthen capacity building programmes and the use of the knowledge base maintained by the Convention; supporting collaboration among developing countries to strengthen pesticide risk regulation; explore options to make regulatory risk data more transparent and accessible; strengthen research and education in alternatives to pesticides; stop all exports of crop protection products banned in the EU; only allow the export of severely restricted pesticides if these are regulated accordingly and used properly in the importing country; and support the re-evaluation of pesticide registrations in developing countries to be in line with FAO/WHO Code of Conduct.

Parlamendiväline autor

Swagata SARKAR, Juliana DIAS BERNARDES GIL, James KEELEY, Niklas MÖHRING, Kees JANSEN

Sudan: A transition under pressure

18-12-2020

One year after its inception, the transitional government of Sudan, born out of the protests that brought down the 30-year regime of Omar al-Bashir in 2019, continues to face grave challenges at domestic and international level. The hybrid government, composed of civilians and members of the security forces, declared that peace negotiations and tackling the economic crisis would be its priorities during a 39-month transitional period leading up to elections in 2022. On 3 October 2020, the government ...

One year after its inception, the transitional government of Sudan, born out of the protests that brought down the 30-year regime of Omar al-Bashir in 2019, continues to face grave challenges at domestic and international level. The hybrid government, composed of civilians and members of the security forces, declared that peace negotiations and tackling the economic crisis would be its priorities during a 39-month transitional period leading up to elections in 2022. On 3 October 2020, the government concluded a peace deal with several armed groups. Although spurned by the main armed group in Darfur, peace negotiations made headway towards addressing persistent inequalities between the centre and the peripheries, amending originally agreed power-sharing arrangements and securing a commitment from the new cabinet to hand over the suspects wanted by the International Criminal Court. Funding constraints could however threaten the implementation of a peace deal, as long-standing structural issues, unsustainable levels of debt and crippling inflation already beset Sudan's economy, further damaged by the impact of the lockdown imposed in response to the Covid-19 pandemic. Economic concerns have spilled over onto the diplomatic sphere: under US pressure, Sudan has agreed to a rapprochement with Israel in order to secure its removal from the US terror list, a prerequisite for obtaining debt relief. This has further tested the coalition's coherence, and public support for government policies. The EU has been supporting the transition towards a civilian government and has pledged a massive rise in development and humanitarian funding.

Cash for development? The use of microcredits and cash transfers as development tools

17-12-2020

Microcredits and cash transfers are two distinct tools, but they both target poor households and individuals with cash alike. This report provides details of the latest advances in these cash-for-development tools at a time when the EU is reshaping its development finance tools for the 2021-27 period. Through a literature review, our study provides the current state of knowledge on microcredits and cash transfers. It then considers current EU support for these modalities and assesses this support ...

Microcredits and cash transfers are two distinct tools, but they both target poor households and individuals with cash alike. This report provides details of the latest advances in these cash-for-development tools at a time when the EU is reshaping its development finance tools for the 2021-27 period. Through a literature review, our study provides the current state of knowledge on microcredits and cash transfers. It then considers current EU support for these modalities and assesses this support in light of the main findings and conclusions drawn from the literature. Research reveals much evidence confirming cash-for-development tools’ contributions to poverty reduction. Furthermore, it identifies a second layer of positive economic effects resulting from their use that can be of value when determining responses to the Covid-19 crisis. Moreover, even though microfinance and cash transfers have undergone exponential growth in recent decades, their use remains very limited at EU Institution level. The report recommends that a broader and more systematic use of cash-for-development tools should be explored by EU Institutions, albeit framed within broader programming and context analysis.

Parlamendiväline autor

Aitor PEREZ, Nicolas AYENSA, Maricruz LACALLE

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