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Artificial intelligence act

17-11-2021

The European Commission unveiled a new proposal for an EU regulatory framework on artificial intelligence (AI) in April 2021. The draft AI act is the first ever attempt to enact a horizontal regulation of AI. The proposed legal framework focuses on the specific utilisation of AI systems and associated risks. The Commission proposes to establish a technology-neutral definition of AI systems in EU law and to lay down a classification for AI systems with different requirements and obligations tailored ...

The European Commission unveiled a new proposal for an EU regulatory framework on artificial intelligence (AI) in April 2021. The draft AI act is the first ever attempt to enact a horizontal regulation of AI. The proposed legal framework focuses on the specific utilisation of AI systems and associated risks. The Commission proposes to establish a technology-neutral definition of AI systems in EU law and to lay down a classification for AI systems with different requirements and obligations tailored on a 'risk-based approach'. Some AI systems presenting 'unacceptable' risks would be prohibited. A wide range of 'high-risk' AI systems would be authorised, but subject to a set of requirements and obligations to gain access to the EU market. Those AI systems presenting only 'low or minimal risk' would be subject to very light transparency obligations. While generally supporting the Commission's proposal, stakeholders and experts call for a number of amendments, including revising the definition of AI systems, broadening the list of prohibited AI systems, strengthening enforcement and redress mechanisms and ensuring proper democratic oversight of the design and implementation of EU AI regulation. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

CAP Amending Regulation (CMO): Amending regulations on the CMO for agricultural products, quality schemes and measures for remote regions

12-11-2021

On 1 June 2018, as part of the work on the EU's 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework, the European Commission proposed a package of three regulations with the aim of reshaping and modernising the common agricultural policy (CAP). One of these proposals, the Amending Regulation, introduces changes to rules governing the common market organisation (CMO) in agricultural products (including the rules on wine), the EU quality schemes (geographical indications) and the support measures for remote ...

On 1 June 2018, as part of the work on the EU's 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework, the European Commission proposed a package of three regulations with the aim of reshaping and modernising the common agricultural policy (CAP). One of these proposals, the Amending Regulation, introduces changes to rules governing the common market organisation (CMO) in agricultural products (including the rules on wine), the EU quality schemes (geographical indications) and the support measures for remote regions. The aim is to equip agricultural markets and support measures to face new challenges, update provisions, simplify procedures and ensure consistency with other regulations on the future CAP. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Rules of origin in EU trade agreements

10-11-2021

The European Commission is currently in the process of simplifying and harmonising the rules of origin for EU trade agreements, with the aim of enhancing the effectiveness of the latter. Indeed, there is a general perception that the complexity of the rules and their lack of harmonisation across EU trade agreements, together with burdensome certification procedures, may be deterring some business managers from making use of the preferential trade tariffs allowed by the agreements. Rules of origin ...

The European Commission is currently in the process of simplifying and harmonising the rules of origin for EU trade agreements, with the aim of enhancing the effectiveness of the latter. Indeed, there is a general perception that the complexity of the rules and their lack of harmonisation across EU trade agreements, together with burdensome certification procedures, may be deterring some business managers from making use of the preferential trade tariffs allowed by the agreements. Rules of origin govern the conditions under which an imported good is recognised as 'originating' in a preference-given country and eligible for preferential trade tariffs. Provisions on rules of origin cover two major areas. First, the conditions for conferring origin are designed on a product-by-product basis, following principles typically based on processing operations and/or share of input. An essential part of this process also consists of determining to what extent origin rules may 'cumulate' materials and operations, not only in the parties to trade agreements, but also in third countries (under specific conditions). A second aspect is the certification procedure for origin, including product consignment conditions. The EU's reform process touches on all of these areas. It started with the reform of the generalised scheme of preferences in 2011, a unilateral trade arrangement designed by the EU for developing countries that inspired the EU's subsequent trade agreement negotiations. In some cases, the EU also promotes a more advanced cumulation system, particularly within the pan-Euro-Mediterranean system, to promote economic integration with neighbouring trading partners. Finally, the EU supports the use of flexible consignment rules that take into account increasingly globalised inventory management. It also encourages the use of self-certification by exporters as opposed to exporting authorities. Rules of origin are complex and rely on negotiations with partner countries, and their harmonisation poses a genuine challenge for the EU. In its latest trade policy review published in February 2021, the Commission announced that policy actions on rules of origin are still needed. The modernisation of the rules of origin is supported by the European Parliament, which has argued that they determine the 'true extent of trade liberalisation'.

Revision of Directive 96/9/EC on the legal protection of databases

27-10-2021

Following the adoption of the 2015 strategy for a digital single market in Europe and the 2020 communication on a European strategy for data, both of which sought to establish the right conditions for developing the EU data economy, several additional policy and legislative initiatives were undertaken. Their common goal was to provide the necessary legal, technological and economic conditions so data access, data-sharing and data re-use could foster innovation, business competitiveness and public ...

Following the adoption of the 2015 strategy for a digital single market in Europe and the 2020 communication on a European strategy for data, both of which sought to establish the right conditions for developing the EU data economy, several additional policy and legislative initiatives were undertaken. Their common goal was to provide the necessary legal, technological and economic conditions so data access, data-sharing and data re-use could foster innovation, business competitiveness and public interest. One of these initiatives resulted in the adoption of Directive 96/9/EC on the Legal Protection of Databases (the Database Directive), which is among the legal instruments to be revised as part of the development of an EU data act. As the Database Directive provides rules on intellectual property rights attached to databases, its revision is also part of the Commission’s intellectual property action plan, adopted in 2020 This implementation appraisal looks at the practical implementation of the directive in light of the expected Commission proposal for its revision. According to the 2021 Commission work programme, the proposal will be submitted in the third quarter of 2021, after having initially been part of the 2020 Refit programme.

Outlook for the European Council meeting of 21-22 October 2021

15-10-2021

The regular European Council meeting of 21-22 October 2021 will discuss the coronavirus pandemic, digital policy, migration, energy prices and external relations. Regarding the coronavirus pandemic, EU Heads of State or Government will focus on EU coordination, resilience and readiness in terms of health crises and the EU's future preparedness for the short and medium terms. The discussions at the meeting on both digital policy and on migration are expected to be stock-taking exercises, assessing ...

The regular European Council meeting of 21-22 October 2021 will discuss the coronavirus pandemic, digital policy, migration, energy prices and external relations. Regarding the coronavirus pandemic, EU Heads of State or Government will focus on EU coordination, resilience and readiness in terms of health crises and the EU's future preparedness for the short and medium terms. The discussions at the meeting on both digital policy and on migration are expected to be stock-taking exercises, assessing the implementation of previous European Council decisions and possibly adding further specifications to them. If the update of the Schengen Borders Code were to be addressed in the context of migration, this could generate a strong debate, since despite overall support for strong external EU borders, Member States have diverging views on how border protection should be assured. EU leaders could also debate energy prices at length, as the issue has become high profile in many Member States. Regarding external relations, discussions in the European Council will focus on preparations for forthcoming international events, notably the ASEM and the Eastern Partnership summits, and the COP26 climate conference. In addition, the Presidents of the European Council, Charles Michel, and the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, may brief EU Heads of State or Government on the recent EU-Ukraine Summit, held on 12 October 2021.

Machinery Directive: Revision of Directive 2006/42/EC

17-09-2021

The Machinery Directive establishes a regulatory framework for mechanical engineering industry products. It regulates the harmonisation of essential health and safety requirements for machinery in order to ensure the free movement of machinery products within the internal market on the one hand, and a high level of protection for machinery users on the other. The European Commission's Regulatory Fitness and Performance Programme (REFIT) evaluation of 2018 concluded that the directive has generally ...

The Machinery Directive establishes a regulatory framework for mechanical engineering industry products. It regulates the harmonisation of essential health and safety requirements for machinery in order to ensure the free movement of machinery products within the internal market on the one hand, and a high level of protection for machinery users on the other. The European Commission's Regulatory Fitness and Performance Programme (REFIT) evaluation of 2018 concluded that the directive has generally remained relevant and effective. However, it pointed at certain shortcomings in the enforcement of the directive (mainly related to market surveillance, a Member State responsibility), and found that despite its technology-neutral design, the directive might not sufficiently cover new risks stemming from emerging technologies (in particular robots using artificial intelligence technologies). Furthermore, it identified the potential for administrative simplification. The Commission issued its new proposal for a regulation on machinery products (COM(2021) 202) on 21 April 2021, as part of the 'artificial intelligence package'. In particular, the change of instrument (regulation instead of a directive) aims at ensuring a uniform implementation in the Member States and avoiding the risk of 'gold plating'.

The role of non-financial performance indicators and integrated reporting in achieving sustainable value creation

10-09-2021

Structured analysis of the current scientific evidence on the effects of sustainability reporting including non-financial performance indicators, stand-alone sustainability reporting as well as integrated reporting. It discusses the benefits and challenges particularly related to internal decision-making, external transparency as well as financial and non-financial/environmental, social and governance effects. Further, it offers policy recommendations in view of the European Commission’s proposal ...

Structured analysis of the current scientific evidence on the effects of sustainability reporting including non-financial performance indicators, stand-alone sustainability reporting as well as integrated reporting. It discusses the benefits and challenges particularly related to internal decision-making, external transparency as well as financial and non-financial/environmental, social and governance effects. Further, it offers policy recommendations in view of the European Commission’s proposal on the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive.

Parlamendiväline autor

Tami DINH, Anna HUSMANN, Gaia MELLONI

What if deepfakes made us doubt everything we see and hear?

07-09-2021

Deepfakes are hyper-realistic media products created through artificial intelligence (AI) techniques that manipulate how people look and the things that they appear to say or do. They hit the headlines in 2018 with a deepfake video of Barack Obama, which was designed to raise awareness of their challenges. The accessibility and outputs of deepfake generation tools are improving rapidly, and their use is increasing exponentially. A wide range of malicious uses have been identified, including fraud ...

Deepfakes are hyper-realistic media products created through artificial intelligence (AI) techniques that manipulate how people look and the things that they appear to say or do. They hit the headlines in 2018 with a deepfake video of Barack Obama, which was designed to raise awareness of their challenges. The accessibility and outputs of deepfake generation tools are improving rapidly, and their use is increasing exponentially. A wide range of malicious uses have been identified, including fraud, extortion and political disinformation. The impacts of such misuse can be financial, psychological and reputational. However, the most widespread use so far has been the production of non-consensual pornographic videos, with negative impacts that overwhelmingly affect women. Deepfakes may also contribute to worrying trends in our media, as well as in our social and democratic systems. While the technology itself is legal, some malicious uses are not, and a combination of legal and technical measures may be mobilised to limit their production and dissemination.

Biometric Recognition and Behavioural Detection Assessing the ethical aspects of biometric recognition and behavioural detection techniques with a focus on their current and future use in public spaces

02-09-2021

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI and PETI Committees, analyses the use of biometric techniques from an ethical and legal perspective. Biometric techniques raise a number of specific ethical issues, as an individual cannot easily change biometric features, and as these techniques tend to intrude into the human body and ultimately the human self. Further issues are more generally associated ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI and PETI Committees, analyses the use of biometric techniques from an ethical and legal perspective. Biometric techniques raise a number of specific ethical issues, as an individual cannot easily change biometric features, and as these techniques tend to intrude into the human body and ultimately the human self. Further issues are more generally associated with large-scale surveillance, algorithmic decision making, or profiling. The study analyses different types of biometric techniques and draws conclusions for EU legislation

Parlamendiväline autor

Christiane WENDEHORST, Yannic DULLER

Regulating targeted and behavioural advertising in digital services. How to ensure users’ informed consent

31-08-2021

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by ...

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee...

Eelseisvad üritused

29-11-2021
The Mutual Defence Clause (Article 42(7) TEU) in the face of new threats
Kuulamine -
SEDE
29-11-2021
Competitiveness of EU agriculture
Kuulamine -
AGRI
30-11-2021
Eliminating Violence against Women - Inter-parliamentary committee meeting
Muu sündmus -
FEMM

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