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Implementation of citizenship education actions in the EU

03-08-2021

In December 2020, the European Parliament's Committee on Culture and Education (CULT) requested the drawing up of an own-initiative report on the implementation of the citizenship education actions (2021/2008(INI)). Mr Domènec Ruiz Devesa (S&D, Spain) was appointed rapporteur. This European implementation assessment (EIA) has been prepared to accompany the CULT committee in its scrutiny work on the implementation of citizenship education actions in the European Union. The first part of the EIA presents ...

In December 2020, the European Parliament's Committee on Culture and Education (CULT) requested the drawing up of an own-initiative report on the implementation of the citizenship education actions (2021/2008(INI)). Mr Domènec Ruiz Devesa (S&D, Spain) was appointed rapporteur. This European implementation assessment (EIA) has been prepared to accompany the CULT committee in its scrutiny work on the implementation of citizenship education actions in the European Union. The first part of the EIA presents an overview of the EU policy framework for citizenship education, while the second part presents actions in the field of citizenship education supported by EU funding programmes, in particular the Erasmus+ and Horizon 2020 programmes. The second part also presents citizenship education policies and practices in 10 EU Member States.

Parlamendiväline autor

Part I: In-house introductory analysis was prepared by Dr Anna Zygierewicz, Ex-Post Evaluation Unit (EVAL), European Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS). This paper has been drawn up by the Ex-post Evaluation Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament. Part II: A research paper on the implementation of the citizenship education in the EU was written by Prof. Wiel Veugelers of the University of Humanistic Studies Utrecht at the request of the Ex-Post Evaluation Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Artificial Intelligence in smart cities and urban mobility

23-07-2021

Artificial Intelligence (AI) enabling smart urban solutions brings multiple benefits, including more efficient energy, water and waste management, reduced pollution, noise and traffic congestions. Local authorities face relevant challenges undermining the digital transformation from the technological, social and regulatory standpoint, namely (i) technology and data availability and reliability, the dependency on third private parties and the lack of skills; (ii) ethical challenges for the unbiased ...

Artificial Intelligence (AI) enabling smart urban solutions brings multiple benefits, including more efficient energy, water and waste management, reduced pollution, noise and traffic congestions. Local authorities face relevant challenges undermining the digital transformation from the technological, social and regulatory standpoint, namely (i) technology and data availability and reliability, the dependency on third private parties and the lack of skills; (ii) ethical challenges for the unbiased use of AI; and (iii) the difficulty of regulating interdependent infrastructures and data, respectively. To overcome the identified challenges, the following actions are recommended: • EU-wide support for infrastructure and governance on digitalisation, including high performance computing, integrated circuits, CPUs and GPU’s, 5G, cloud services, Urban Data Platforms, enhancing efficiency and ensuring at the same time unbiased data collection. • Inclusion of urban AI in EU research programs addressing data exchange, communication networks and policy on mobility and energy, enhancing capacity building initiatives, also through test and experimentation facilities. • Harmonising AI related policies in the EU, taking into account the context specificity: necessary research. • Adoption of innovative procurement procedures, entailing requirements for technical and ethically responsible AI.

Parlamendiväline autor

Devin DIRAN, Anne Fleur VAN VEENSTRA, Tjerk TIMAN, Paola TESTA and Maria KIROVA

Health impact of 5G

22-07-2021

Recent decades have experienced an unparalleled development in wireless communication technologies (mobile telephony, Wi-Fi). The imminent introduction of 5G technology across the EU is expected to bring new opportunities for citizens and businesses, through faster internet browsing, streaming and downloading, as well as through better connectivity. However, 5G, along with 3G and 4G, with which it will operate in parallel for several years, may also pose threats to human health. This STOA report ...

Recent decades have experienced an unparalleled development in wireless communication technologies (mobile telephony, Wi-Fi). The imminent introduction of 5G technology across the EU is expected to bring new opportunities for citizens and businesses, through faster internet browsing, streaming and downloading, as well as through better connectivity. However, 5G, along with 3G and 4G, with which it will operate in parallel for several years, may also pose threats to human health. This STOA report aim to take stock of our present understanding of health effects of 5G.

Parlamendiväline autor

This study has been written by Dr Fiorella Belpoggi, BSC, PhD, International Academy of Toxicologic Pathology Fellow (IATPF), Ramazzini Institute, Bologna (Italy), at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament. The scoping review search was performed by Dr Daria Sgargi, PhD, Master in Biostatistics, and Dr Andrea Vornoli, PhD in Cancer Research, Ramazzini Institute, Bologna.

Fighting poverty and social exclusion - including through minimum income schemes

30-06-2021

The study pursues two main aims. Firstly, it addresses the issue of poverty and social exclusion from a theoretical perspective – assessing the relevant concepts – and an empirical perspective – discussing the limitations of different indicators and data with reference to EU countries. Secondly, it focuses on national and EU-level policies dealing with poverty and social exclusion, in particular, on minimum income schemes, presenting 6 country case studies and evaluating the feasibility of an EU ...

The study pursues two main aims. Firstly, it addresses the issue of poverty and social exclusion from a theoretical perspective – assessing the relevant concepts – and an empirical perspective – discussing the limitations of different indicators and data with reference to EU countries. Secondly, it focuses on national and EU-level policies dealing with poverty and social exclusion, in particular, on minimum income schemes, presenting 6 country case studies and evaluating the feasibility of an EU minimum income framework.

Parlamendiväline autor

Michele RAITANO, Giovanni GALLO, Matteo JESSOULA and Costanza PAGNINI

Fighting poverty and social exclusion - including through minimum income schemes

30-06-2021

The study pursues two main aims. Firstly, it addresses the issue of poverty and social exclusion from a theoretical perspective – assessing the relevant concepts – and an empirical perspective – discussing the limitations of different indicators and data with reference to EU countries. Secondly, it focuses on national and EU-level policies dealing with poverty and social exclusion, in particular, on minimum income schemes, presenting 6 country case studies and evaluating the feasibility of an EU ...

The study pursues two main aims. Firstly, it addresses the issue of poverty and social exclusion from a theoretical perspective – assessing the relevant concepts – and an empirical perspective – discussing the limitations of different indicators and data with reference to EU countries. Secondly, it focuses on national and EU-level policies dealing with poverty and social exclusion, in particular, on minimum income schemes, presenting 6 country case studies and evaluating the feasibility of an EU minimum income framework.

Parlamendiväline autor

Michele RAITANO, Giovanni GALLO, Matteo JESSOULA and Costanza PAGNINI

Studies with a ‘Covid 19 angle’

23-06-2021

When the pandemic loomed over us in spring 2020, we asked experts to analyze whether it was possible to introduce a Covid angle into their studies. In many cases, it seemed prima facie a bit far-fetched. However, it soon became apparent that even in our area of work there were interesting aspects to investigate. This publication groups together the most relevant parts of the studies published so far and in which a Covid 19 angle has been presented and discussed.

When the pandemic loomed over us in spring 2020, we asked experts to analyze whether it was possible to introduce a Covid angle into their studies. In many cases, it seemed prima facie a bit far-fetched. However, it soon became apparent that even in our area of work there were interesting aspects to investigate. This publication groups together the most relevant parts of the studies published so far and in which a Covid 19 angle has been presented and discussed.

Gender equality: Economic value of care from the perspective of the applicable EU funds

14-06-2021

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It explores the impact of COVID-19 on the EU care economy, the gendered nature of care work and its continued reliance on unpaid or low-paid work of women. Issues of valuing and measuring care are examined selected countries are examined with different systems of care provision. Despite the recognition of the centrality of the care economy ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It explores the impact of COVID-19 on the EU care economy, the gendered nature of care work and its continued reliance on unpaid or low-paid work of women. Issues of valuing and measuring care are examined selected countries are examined with different systems of care provision. Despite the recognition of the centrality of the care economy during the pandemic, the establishment of a new highly significant EU funding mechanism (the Recovery and Resilience Fund, RRF) is focused largely on digital and green investments, paying only marginal attention to gender equality and the care economy.

Parlamendiväline autor

Ursula Barry

What if we chose new metaphors for artificial intelligence?

08-06-2021

Artificial intelligence (AI) policy debates are replete with metaphors. Even the term ‘AI’ relies upon a metaphor for the human quality of intelligence, and its development is regularly described as a ‘race’. While metaphors are useful in highlighting some features of their subject, they are so powerful that it can be difficult to imagine or discuss their subject in other terms. Here, we explore some challenges presented by the central metaphor of ‘intelligence’, examine how AI metaphors emphasise ...

Artificial intelligence (AI) policy debates are replete with metaphors. Even the term ‘AI’ relies upon a metaphor for the human quality of intelligence, and its development is regularly described as a ‘race’. While metaphors are useful in highlighting some features of their subject, they are so powerful that it can be difficult to imagine or discuss their subject in other terms. Here, we explore some challenges presented by the central metaphor of ‘intelligence’, examine how AI metaphors emphasise competition at the cost of cooperation, and ask whether new metaphors could help us to articulate ambitious visions for AI, and new criteria for success.

European Social Fund Plus (2021-2027)

02-06-2021

The European Social Fund Plus (ESF+) is an important element of the 'cohesion, resilience and values' heading of the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework (MFF). ESF+ mainly contributes to the policy cluster investing in people, citizens and values. The European Parliament is expected to vote at second reading during the June I plenary session on the agreed text resulting from interinstitutional negotiations on the ESF+ regulation.

The European Social Fund Plus (ESF+) is an important element of the 'cohesion, resilience and values' heading of the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework (MFF). ESF+ mainly contributes to the policy cluster investing in people, citizens and values. The European Parliament is expected to vote at second reading during the June I plenary session on the agreed text resulting from interinstitutional negotiations on the ESF+ regulation.

Women's entrepreneurship and self-employment, including aspects of gendered Corporate Social Responsibility

31-05-2021

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It highlights that despite the increasing number of public policies and institutional resources designed to promote women-led business, the entrepreneurship gender gap persists. This study aims to analyse this apparent contradiction, focusing on three main questions: What are the constraints that women face when deciding to become entrepreneurs ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It highlights that despite the increasing number of public policies and institutional resources designed to promote women-led business, the entrepreneurship gender gap persists. This study aims to analyse this apparent contradiction, focusing on three main questions: What are the constraints that women face when deciding to become entrepreneurs? What factors attract women’s interest and motivate them to start their own business? And which policies may benefit women’s entrepreneurship?

Parlamendiväline autor

María BASTIDA, Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

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