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Road safety has improved significantly in the EU, with the number of road fatalities falling by more than 60 % in the last 20 years. However, improvements in road safety fell short of the EU goals of decreasing the number of road deaths by 50 % between 2001 and 2010, and by an additional 50 % between 2011 and 2020. Directive (EU) 2015/413 facilitating cross-border exchange of information on road safety-related traffic offences – the Cross-border Enforcement (CBE) Directive – is one of the pillars ...

Drawing on a wide array of sources and literature, this study examines the role of the European Parliament in the establishment of the European Community's environmental policy. It argues that Parliament played a key role in placing this nascent policy issue on the agenda. It influenced the definition of what the policy should include, what it should focus on, and which instruments should be used to address environmental problems. In this process, Parliament filtered ideas, issues and political objectives ...

Drawing on a wide array of sources and literature, this study examines the role of the European Parliament in the establishment of the European Community's consumer policy. It argues that Parliament played a key role in placing this nascent policy issue on the agenda. It influenced the definition of what the policy should include, what it should focus on, and which instruments should be used to address the problems facing European consumers. In this process, Parliament filtered ideas, issues and ...

Drawing on a wide array of sources and literature, this study examines the role of the European Parliament in the establishment of the European Community's social policy. It argues that Parliament played a key role in placing this nascent policy issue on the agenda. It influenced the definition of what the policy should include, what it should focus on, and which instruments should be used to address social problems. In this process, Parliament filtered ideas, issues and political objectives from ...

Cyber solidarity act

Briefing 13-02-2024

Russia's war against Ukraine has revealed the extent of our dependency on digital technology and the fragility of the digital space. It has triggered a surge in cyberattacks that have been particularly disruptive when targeting critical infrastructure – such as energy, health or finance – because of the increasing reliance on information technology, rendering this infrastructure all the more vulnerable. Against this backdrop, the Commission has proposed a regulation on a cyber solidarity act that ...

European media freedom act

Briefing 06-02-2024

An independent media is a pillar of democracy and an important part of the economy, helping to shape public opinion and hold those in power to account. In recent years, however, there have been increasingly worrying trends across the European Union (EU), as documented in the annual rule of law reports by the European Commission, and by other tools such as the Media Pluralism Monitor. Tabled on 16 September 2022, the proposed European media freedom act (EMFA) would introduce a new set of rules to ...

This At A Glance - Study In Focus provides information on the proposed reform of the electricity market design which maintains crucial elements of the existing system to ensure continued efficient operation. The impact that changing the rules on longer-term contracts will have on consumer prices and investment will depend on the concrete language of proposed legislation as well as its ultimate implementation. Overall, neither the expected mode of impact of individual reform elements, let alone their ...

Cross-border claims to looted art

Tutkimus 16-10-2023

This study addresses cross-border restitution claims to looted art, considering Nazi-looted art and colonial takings, but also more recent cultural losses resulting from illicit trafficking. Although these categories differ considerably, commonalties exist. The study highlights blind spots in the legal and policy frameworks and formulates recommendations on how these could be bridged. This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional ...

This At A Glance - Study In Focus provides information on the implementation and enforcement of the Package Travel Directive (PTD) in the EU with a focus on ten EU Member States. It summarises areas for improvement, such as adapting the definition of package travel to accommodate evolving industry trends, addressing pre-contractual information gaps, improving payment practices, tackling challenges in the digital environment, enhancing enforcement mechanisms, promoting alternative dispute resolution ...

The proposed reform of the electricity market design maintains crucial elements of the existing system to ensure continued efficient operation. The impact that changing the rules on longer-term contracts will have on consumer prices and investment will depend on the concrete language of proposed legislation as well as its ultimate implementation. Overall, neither the expected mode of impact of individual reform elements, let alone their interaction, is clearly spelled out by the legislators. This ...