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Ten composite indices for policy-making

08-09-2021

Evidence and data are key to good policy-making, in particular when it comes to setting priorities, mitigating negative impacts and finding optimum trade-offs. The information provided in this publication is designed to help policy-makers by providing sources of data and identifying possible bias in their use. EPRS has selected 10 composite indices in a range of policy areas from reliable sources; indices already used as references by policy-makers. For each index, a chapter presents the producers ...

Evidence and data are key to good policy-making, in particular when it comes to setting priorities, mitigating negative impacts and finding optimum trade-offs. The information provided in this publication is designed to help policy-makers by providing sources of data and identifying possible bias in their use. EPRS has selected 10 composite indices in a range of policy areas from reliable sources; indices already used as references by policy-makers. For each index, a chapter presents the producers and describes their objectives in publishing the index, the data compiled, and how that data is or could be used by policy-makers. The chapters also highlight each index's limitations.

Climate action in Romania: Latest state of play

30-08-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Romania's final NECP is from April 2020. More than half (51 %) of Romanians expect national governments to tackle climate change. Romania generates 3 % of the EU-27's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced emissions faster than the EU average between 2005 ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Romania's final NECP is from April 2020. More than half (51 %) of Romanians expect national governments to tackle climate change. Romania generates 3 % of the EU-27's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced emissions faster than the EU average between 2005 and 2019. With several energy-intensive industries present in Romania, the country's carbon intensity is much higher than the EU average, but decreasing rapidly. Energy industry emissions fell by 46 % between 2005 and 2019, reducing the sector's share of total emissions by eight percentage points. Conversely, emissions from the transport sector increased by 40 % over the same period, doubling that sector's share of total emissions. Romania relies to a great extent on fossil fuels. Renewables, along with nuclear energy, but also gas as a primary energy source, are seen as essential to the transition process. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Romania was allowed to increase emissions until 2020 and must reduce these emissions by 2 % relative to 2005 by 2030. Romania achieved a 24.3 % share of renewable energy sources in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 30.7 % share is focused mainly on wind, hydro, solar and fuels from biomass. Energy efficiency measures centre on heating supply and building envelopes along with industrial modernisation.

Climate action in Austria: Latest state of play

30-08-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Austria's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Austrians (60 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Austria generates 2.2 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Austria's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Austrians (60 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Austria generates 2.2 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. The country's carbon intensity is lower than the EU average, following a similar steady downward trend. The transport sector accounted for 30 % of Austria's total emissions in 2019 and its share is continuing to rise, whereas in 2019 the energy industries accounted for just 13 % of the total emissions share. Austria is aiming to reach carbon neutrality by 2040. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Austria was required to reduce non-ETS emissions by 16 % before end 2020, compared with 2005, and must achieve a 36 % reduction by 2030; this outcome currently seems unlikely. Austria achieved a 33.6 % share of renewable energy sources in 2019. The country's 2030 target of 46-50 % renewable energy has a strong focus on delivering 100 % renewable electricity generation. The bulk of the measures planned to achieve the energy efficiency targets focus on buildings' heating needs and transport sector transition.

Climate action in Finland: Latest state of play

30-08-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Finland's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Finns (61 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Finland generates 1.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a faster pace than the EU average ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Finland's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Finns (61 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Finland generates 1.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a faster pace than the EU average since 2005. The country's emissions intensity is lower than the EU average, and following a similar downward trend. The energy industry and transport are the main emitting sectors in Finland, together accounting for 50 % of total emissions in 2019. With a coal phase-out commitment, and new nuclear facilities starting operations this decade, energy industry emissions will drop. Finland has identified additional measures to reduce transport sector emissions. Biomass will be used for biofuels in transport as well as heat and electricity generation. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Finland was required to reduce non-ETS emissions by 16 % by 2020, compared with 2005, while for the year 2030 the reduction must reach 39 %. Finland achieved a 43.1 % share of renewable energy sources in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 51 % share is focused mainly on wind and biomass. Energy efficiency measures centre on building stock renovation and voluntary energy efficiency agreements across industry and households.

Climate action in Lithuania: Latest state of play

24-06-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Lithuania finalised its NECP in December 2019. Lithuania generates 0.55 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. Most economic sectors showed emissions reductions in the 2005-2019 ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Lithuania finalised its NECP in December 2019. Lithuania generates 0.55 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. Most economic sectors showed emissions reductions in the 2005-2019 period, with the exception of transport, agriculture and the 'other emissions' sectors. The transport and agriculture sectors account for 52 % of Lithuania's total emissions. Energy industry emissions have fallen by 60 % since 2005, while emissions in the 'other emissions' category, which includes services and buildings grew by 24 %. EU effort-sharing legislation allowed Lithuania to increase its emissions by 15 % up until 2020. Lithuania stayed well below its 2013-2020 allowances and expects to over-achieve on the 2030 target of 9 % reductions relative to 2005, potentially achieving 21 % reductions. Lithuania's renewable energy share was 25.5 % in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 45 % share focuses mainly on wind, solar and biofuels. Energy efficiency measures centre to a large extent on the building stock and transport sector with support schemes for industry and households.

Climate action in Croatia: Latest state of play

10-06-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021 to 2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Croatia's final NECP is from December 2019. Croatia generates 0.7 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. The country's emissions intensity is significantly higher than the EU ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021 to 2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Croatia's final NECP is from December 2019. Croatia generates 0.7 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. The country's emissions intensity is significantly higher than the EU average, though it is on a steady downward trend. The transport sector accounted for over a quarter of Croatia's total emissions in 2019. The Croatian building stock is also responsible for a significant share of total emissions. Energy industry emissions fell by almost 40 % between 2005 and 2019, reducing the sector's share of total emissions by six percentage points. The Croatian economy is heavily reliant on energy imports. Diversifying supply and reducing demand is seen as key to the transition process. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Croatia was allowed to increase emissions until 2020 but must reduce these emissions by 7 % relative to 2005 by 2030. Croatia achieved a 28.5 % share of renewable energy sources in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 36.4 % share is focused mainly on photovoltaics, wind and biofuels. Measures to boost energy efficiency centre on building stock renovation and energy efficiency obligation schemes for energy suppliers. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States.

Climate action in Italy: Latest state of play

10-06-2021

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Italy's final NECP was sent in December 2019. Italy generates 11.4 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a faster pace than the EU average since 2005. Emissions decreased across all economic sectors in Italy over the ...

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Italy's final NECP was sent in December 2019. Italy generates 11.4 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a faster pace than the EU average since 2005. Emissions decreased across all economic sectors in Italy over the 2005-2019 period, with the agricultural sector showing the lowest reductions. The transport and 'other emissions' sectors, including buildings, account for almost half of Italy's total emissions. Energy industry emissions fell by 42 % between 2005 and 2019, leaving the sector in third place in terms of its share of total emissions. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Italy reduced its emissions by 13 % by 2020 relative to 2005, and the country expects to reach the 2030 target of 33 %. Italy achieved an 18 % share of renewable energy sources (RES) in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 30 % share is focused mainly on wind and solar power. Energy efficiency measures centre to a large extent on the building stock and transport sectors with support schemes for industry and households. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States.

Climate action in Luxembourg: Latest state of play

10-06-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Luxembourg's final NECP is from May 2020. Luxembourg generates 0.34 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. Most economic sectors showed emissions reductions in the 2005-2019 period ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Luxembourg's final NECP is from May 2020. Luxembourg generates 0.34 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. Most economic sectors showed emissions reductions in the 2005-2019 period, with the exception of agriculture and the 'other emissions' sectors. The transport sector and the 'other emissions' sector, which includes services and buildings, account for 77 % of Luxembourg's total emissions. Manufacturing and construction is the third largest sector in terms of emissions, accounting for 9 % of total emissions. Under EU effort-sharing legislation Luxembourg was supposed to reduce emissions by 20 % by 2020, and the 2030 obligation is 40 %. Luxembourg however expects to achieve a 55 % emissions reduction by 2030 in sectors outside the emissions trading system. Luxembourg reached a 7 % share of renewable energy sources (RES) in 2019 and expects in part to use cooperation mechanisms to reach the 2030 target of 25 % RES. Energy efficiency measures include both support and obligation schemes for industry, building renovations and transport electrification.

Harnessing the new momentum in transatlantic relations: Potential areas for common action during the Biden presidency

10-06-2021

The transatlantic relationship has been witnessing a significant injection of renewed enthusiasm and policy activity since Joe Biden became President of the United States in January 2021. This paper focuses on three important issues on the rapidly evolving transatlantic policy agenda, exploring their potential for generating, in effect, new 'common global goods' during the Biden presidency. First, it looks at pathways towards developing some kind of 'transatlantic green deal', taking climate action ...

The transatlantic relationship has been witnessing a significant injection of renewed enthusiasm and policy activity since Joe Biden became President of the United States in January 2021. This paper focuses on three important issues on the rapidly evolving transatlantic policy agenda, exploring their potential for generating, in effect, new 'common global goods' during the Biden presidency. First, it looks at pathways towards developing some kind of 'transatlantic green deal', taking climate action, trade and climate diplomacy in the round. Second, it analyses the comparative fabrics of US and European societies through the triple lens of violent extremism, the rule of law and technological disruption. Third, the prospects for 'crisis-proofing' the transatlantic space for the future are examined by looking at defence, health security and multilateralism. The paper also explores some potential avenues for closer transatlantic parliamentary cooperation, building on the already strong relationship between the European Parliament and the US Congress.

President Biden's climate summit

03-05-2021

On 22 and 23 April 2021, United States (US) President Joe Biden convened a virtual summit of 40 world leaders in a bid to galvanise global efforts to address the climate crisis. There he announced new targets of cutting US net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 'between 26 and 28 %' by 2025, and by 'between 50 and 52 %' by 2030, compared with 2005 levels. Biden also announced initiatives to help developing countries decarbonise, and encouraged other countries to match US ambition. The summit, one ...

On 22 and 23 April 2021, United States (US) President Joe Biden convened a virtual summit of 40 world leaders in a bid to galvanise global efforts to address the climate crisis. There he announced new targets of cutting US net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 'between 26 and 28 %' by 2025, and by 'between 50 and 52 %' by 2030, compared with 2005 levels. Biden also announced initiatives to help developing countries decarbonise, and encouraged other countries to match US ambition. The summit, one of a number of events leading up to the (delayed) 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow (United Kingdom) in November 2021, prompted several other countries to pledge new targets. The EU has welcomed the new US targets, but questions remain about their level of ambition and feasibility.

Tulevat tapahtumat

29-09-2021
EPRS online policy roundtable: How will Artificial Intelligence change humanity?
Muu tapahtuma -
EPRS
30-09-2021
AIDA public hearing on AI and the data strategy
Kuulemistilaisuus -
AIDA
30-09-2021
The risks and benefits of technology in the tax area
Seminaari -
FISC

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