117

tulos(ta)

Hakusana(t)
Julkaisutyyppi
Toimiala
Laatija
Hakusana
Päivämäärä

The link between biodiversity loss and the increasing spread of zoonotic diseases

22-12-2020

Over the last decades, a variety of fatal infectious diseases have had zoonotic origins. The linkages between hosts, vectors, parasites and pathogens can be influenced by a multitude of factors, such as biodiversity, wildlife and land use. High levels of biodiversity may be a potential source of pathogen transmission, but biodiversity loss can also promote transmission by increasing the number of competent hosts for a pathogen. Biodiversity conservation reduces the risk of zoonotic diseases when ...

Over the last decades, a variety of fatal infectious diseases have had zoonotic origins. The linkages between hosts, vectors, parasites and pathogens can be influenced by a multitude of factors, such as biodiversity, wildlife and land use. High levels of biodiversity may be a potential source of pathogen transmission, but biodiversity loss can also promote transmission by increasing the number of competent hosts for a pathogen. Biodiversity conservation reduces the risk of zoonotic diseases when it provides additional habitats for species and reduces the potential contact between wildlife, livestock and humans. Additionally, host and vector management is a viable option. Other crucial measures include the restriction and sanitary control of wildlife trade, while considering the needs of indigenous peoples and local communities. Each case requires an assessment of the best way to reduce risk while considering implications for other ecosystem functions or services. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI).

Ulkopuolinen laatija

Frank VAN LANGEVELDE, Hugo René RIVERA MENDOZA, Kevin D. MATSON, Helen J. ESSER, Willem F. DE BOER, Stefan SCHINDLER

Protection of workers from exposure to carcinogens or mutagens: Fourth proposal

30-11-2020

The impact assessment (IA) defines clearly the problem and its underlying drivers. The IA considers a wide range of options, and those retained for further assessment appear to be reasonable and/or justified. However, the IA would have benefited from providing greater clarity on those components that were either included in (short-term exposure limit values) or excluded (biological limit values) from the preferred options. The analysis of impacts focuses on their economic and social dimension, mainly ...

The impact assessment (IA) defines clearly the problem and its underlying drivers. The IA considers a wide range of options, and those retained for further assessment appear to be reasonable and/or justified. However, the IA would have benefited from providing greater clarity on those components that were either included in (short-term exposure limit values) or excluded (biological limit values) from the preferred options. The analysis of impacts focuses on their economic and social dimension, mainly linked to health. Environmental impacts are found to be limited or small but positive, but the analysis could have been substantiated more thoroughly. A cost-benefit analysis of the transitional occupational exposure limit values included in the preferred options was not performed. Stakeholders' opinions have been satisfactorily reported. Finally, the IA appears to have addressed most of the RSB's recommendations and the legislative proposal seems to be consistent with the analysis carried out in the IA.

Impacts of climate change and air pollution on the health of the EU population

12-11-2020

As 13% of deaths in the EU 28 Member States (EU-28) were attributable to the environment in 2012,1 it is clear that the effects of climate change are having tangible consequences for the European population. Its pace and intensity could thus lead to increasing health risks accross the EU. Globally, temperatures have already risen by 1°C above pre-industrial levels and a temperature increase of more than 2°C would lead to even greater health risks, especially for vulnerable populations such as the ...

As 13% of deaths in the EU 28 Member States (EU-28) were attributable to the environment in 2012,1 it is clear that the effects of climate change are having tangible consequences for the European population. Its pace and intensity could thus lead to increasing health risks accross the EU. Globally, temperatures have already risen by 1°C above pre-industrial levels and a temperature increase of more than 2°C would lead to even greater health risks, especially for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and children. There is therefore an urgent need for integrated strategies for adaptation and mitigation. Adaptation is aimed at reducing the climate change’s negative effects as well as at taking advantage of any opportunities that it creates, whereas mitigation strategies’ objective is to tackle the cause of climate change while minimising its possible impacts and potentially offering health (co)benefits.

Ulkopuolinen laatija

Hélène ROSSINOT

Coronavirus and the trade in wildlife

04-05-2020

Nearly three quarters of emerging infectious diseases in humans are caused by zoonotic pathogens. The majority of them originate in wildlife. Human activities, such as trade in wildlife, increase opportunities for animal–human interactions and facilitate zoonotic disease transmission. Several significant diseases, including Ebola and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, have been traced, in part, to substantial animal-human contact along the trade chain. Current information suggests ...

Nearly three quarters of emerging infectious diseases in humans are caused by zoonotic pathogens. The majority of them originate in wildlife. Human activities, such as trade in wildlife, increase opportunities for animal–human interactions and facilitate zoonotic disease transmission. Several significant diseases, including Ebola and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, have been traced, in part, to substantial animal-human contact along the trade chain. Current information suggests that the Covid-19 pandemic may have started from a local Chinese wildlife market. Wildlife trade, though difficult to quantify, is one of the most lucrative trades in the world. It is regulated under the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES), an international agreement to which the European Union (EU) and its Member States are parties. Through a permit system, CITES aims to ensure that international trade in listed species is sustainable, legal and traceable. Curbing illegal trade, however, remains a challenge. In 2016, the EU adopted an action plan on wildlife trafficking, which runs until 2020 and is currently under evaluation. The European Parliament supports its renewal and the strengthening of its provisions. The coronavirus crisis has thrown into sharp focus the threat of disease transmission posed by trade in and consumption of wild animal species, prompting calls for bans on wildlife trade and closure of wildlife markets. Others advocate better regulation, including enhanced health and safety and sanitation measures. With matters relating to zoonotic diseases outside CITES' mandate, some have suggested the development of a new international convention to address the issue. To reduce the risks of future outbreaks, many recommend an integrated approach, which would notably also cover nature preservation and restoration.

Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health

11-02-2020

The fifth generation of telecommunications technologies, 5G, is fundamental to achieving a European gigabit society by 2025. The aim to cover all urban areas, railways and major roads with uninterrupted fifth generation wireless communication can only be achieved by creating a very dense network of antennas and transmitters. In other words, the number of higher frequency base stations and other devices will increase significantly. This raises the question as to whether there is a negative impact ...

The fifth generation of telecommunications technologies, 5G, is fundamental to achieving a European gigabit society by 2025. The aim to cover all urban areas, railways and major roads with uninterrupted fifth generation wireless communication can only be achieved by creating a very dense network of antennas and transmitters. In other words, the number of higher frequency base stations and other devices will increase significantly. This raises the question as to whether there is a negative impact on human health and environment from higher frequencies and billions of additional connections, which, according to research, will mean constant exposure for the whole population, including children. Whereas researchers generally consider such radio waves not to constitute a threat to the population, research to date has not addressed the constant exposure that 5G would introduce. Accordingly, a section of the scientific community considers that more research on the potential negative biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and 5G is needed, notably on the incidence of some serious human diseases. A further consideration is the need to bring together researchers from different disciplines, in particular medicine and physics or engineering, to conduct further research into the effects of 5G. The EU’s current provisions on exposure to wireless signals, the Council Recommendation on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz), is now 20 years old, and thus does not take the specific technical characteristics of 5G into account.

Cross-border threats to health: EU action on preparedness and response

10-01-2020

Serious threats to health – such as those due to infectious disease outbreaks or environmental factors – do not respect borders. They do, however, require cross-border cooperation and a coordinated response. Decision No 1082/2013/EU is the framework for European Union action on health emergencies. It provides for information exchange, risk assessment and joint procurement, among other mechanisms. The EU-level response is coordinated by the Health Security Committee. The European Centre for Disease ...

Serious threats to health – such as those due to infectious disease outbreaks or environmental factors – do not respect borders. They do, however, require cross-border cooperation and a coordinated response. Decision No 1082/2013/EU is the framework for European Union action on health emergencies. It provides for information exchange, risk assessment and joint procurement, among other mechanisms. The EU-level response is coordinated by the Health Security Committee. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control meanwhile plays a crucial role in identifying, assessing and communicating threats to health from communicable diseases. Parliament has adopted own-initiative and legislative resolutions focusing both on the general and more specific aspects of cross-border threats to health. At global level, all EU Member States are party to the legally binding International Health Regulations that require them to develop, strengthen and maintain core public health capacities for surveillance and response. Implementation is coordinated by the World Health Organization. Going forward, Member States have expressed interest in exploiting the potential of joint procurement beyond pandemic influenza vaccines. Moreover, a joint action on strengthened International Health Regulations and preparedness in the EU has recently been launched, focusing, in particular, on countering biological and chemical terror attacks in Europe across the health, security and civil protection sectors.

Health and safety in the workplace of the future

16-09-2019

The note identifies future risks to the physical and mental health and safety of workers that are attributable to technology-driven changes in the workplace and looks at possible legislative responses and further action.

The note identifies future risks to the physical and mental health and safety of workers that are attributable to technology-driven changes in the workplace and looks at possible legislative responses and further action.

Ulkopuolinen laatija

David Cabrelli, Richard Graveling

Limits on exposure to carcinogens and mutagens at work: Third proposal

30-08-2019

The European Commission has proposed to amend Directive 2004/37/EC by expanding its scope and by including and/or revising occupational exposure limit values for a number of cancer- or mutation-causing substances. The initiative is proceeding in steps. The first proposal of May 2016 covered 13 priority chemical agents, the second, of January 2017, a further seven. The current (third) proposal addresses an additional five. Broad discussions with scientists and the social partners fed into all three ...

The European Commission has proposed to amend Directive 2004/37/EC by expanding its scope and by including and/or revising occupational exposure limit values for a number of cancer- or mutation-causing substances. The initiative is proceeding in steps. The first proposal of May 2016 covered 13 priority chemical agents, the second, of January 2017, a further seven. The current (third) proposal addresses an additional five. Broad discussions with scientists and the social partners fed into all three proposals. Reacting to the Commission's set of measures as a whole, trade unions have acknowledged the importance of further improving the existing framework. Actors on the employers' side have underlined the need to ensure that values are proportionate and feasible in terms of technical implementation. After adoption by the Parliament and Council, in March and May respectively, based on a text agreed in trilogue in January 2019, the final act was signed by the presidents of the co-legislators on 5 June 2019. Directive (EU) 2019/983 entered into force on 10 July 2019 and is to be transposed into national law within two years, by 11 July 2021. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Endocrine disruptors: An overview of latest developments at European level in the context of plant protection products

25-04-2019

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are chemical substances present in many products of daily life, which interact with the hormonal system and can disrupt its proper functioning. There is a growing interest in understanding EDs and progress has been made on both the scientific and regulatory side, but the topic remains of high concern at decision-making and societal levels because of the challenges it still poses. This paper provides a desk-research based overview of the key moments of the (scientific and ...

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are chemical substances present in many products of daily life, which interact with the hormonal system and can disrupt its proper functioning. There is a growing interest in understanding EDs and progress has been made on both the scientific and regulatory side, but the topic remains of high concern at decision-making and societal levels because of the challenges it still poses. This paper provides a desk-research based overview of the key moments of the (scientific and regulatory) debate on EDs, with a focus on the latest developments at European level, namely Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/605 and the 2018 Commission communication ‘Towards a comprehensive European Union framework on endocrine disruptors’, in the particular context of plant protection products (PPPs).

What if a simple DNA test could predict your future?

22-03-2019

What if new-born babies were given a DNA report card that predicted their intelligence, their odds of getting a PhD, their chances of becoming a chain smoker or suffering depression, a heart attack or cancer? Thanks to ongoing genetic studies, a large amount of genetic data is available today involving millions of people. The wealth of information available to researchers allows them to create a polygenic risk score based on the DNA test of a person. This can be used to predict a person's chances ...

What if new-born babies were given a DNA report card that predicted their intelligence, their odds of getting a PhD, their chances of becoming a chain smoker or suffering depression, a heart attack or cancer? Thanks to ongoing genetic studies, a large amount of genetic data is available today involving millions of people. The wealth of information available to researchers allows them to create a polygenic risk score based on the DNA test of a person. This can be used to predict a person's chances of getting a disease, his or her traits and behaviour, and many other things about their future. Are these predictions flawless? Who would benefit from them? What are their implications for a person's life in general?

Tulevat tapahtumat

14-04-2021
Public Hearing: Boosting the use of alternative fuels in the transport sector
Kuulemistilaisuus -
TRAN
14-04-2021
Public Hearing: The security situation in the Sahel: the African view and experience
Kuulemistilaisuus -
SEDE
14-04-2021
EPRS online policy roundtable: Negotiating the 2021-27 MFF and NGEU
Muu tapahtuma -
EPRS

Kumppanit