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Civil and military drones: Navigating a disruptive and dynamic technological ecosystem

08-10-2019

Often labelled as one of today's main disruptive technologies, drones have indeed earned this label by prompting a fundamental rethinking of business models, existing laws, safety and security standards, the future of transport, and modern warfare. The European Union (EU) recognises the opportunities that drones offer and sees them as opening a new chapter in the history of aerospace. The EU aviation strategy provides guidance for exploring new and emerging technologies, and encourages the integration ...

Often labelled as one of today's main disruptive technologies, drones have indeed earned this label by prompting a fundamental rethinking of business models, existing laws, safety and security standards, the future of transport, and modern warfare. The European Union (EU) recognises the opportunities that drones offer and sees them as opening a new chapter in the history of aerospace. The EU aviation strategy provides guidance for exploring new and emerging technologies, and encourages the integration of drones into business and society so as to maintain a competitive EU aviation industry. Ranging from insect-sized to several tonnes in weight, drones are extremely versatile and can perform a very large variety of functions, from filming to farming, and from medical aid to search and rescue operations. Among the advantages of civil and military drones are their relative low cost, reach, greater work productivity and capacity to reduce risk to human life. These features have led to their mass commercialisation and integration into military planning. Regulatory and oversight challenges remain, however, particularly regarding dual-use drones – civil drones that can be easily turned into armed drones or weaponised for criminal purposes. At EU level, the European Commission has been empowered to regulate civil drones and the European Aviation Safety Agency to assist with ensuring a harmonised regulatory framework for safe drone operations. The latest EU legislation has achieved the highest ever safety standards for drones. Another challenge remaining for regulators, officials and manufacturers alike is the need to build the trust of citizens and consumers. Given that drones have been in the public eye more often for their misuse than their accomplishments, transparency and effective communication are imperative to prepare citizens for the upcoming drone age.

International aviation agreements

04-10-2019

To tackle international air transport challenges in the European Union, particularly increased competition from third countries, the European Commission adopted a new aviation strategy for Europe in December 2015, placing strong emphasis on international aviation agreements. After obtaining negotiating mandates from Council, a number of EU-level comprehensive agreements are coming to fruition, with some now awaiting signature or ratification. This is an updated and expanded edition of an ‘at a glance ...

To tackle international air transport challenges in the European Union, particularly increased competition from third countries, the European Commission adopted a new aviation strategy for Europe in December 2015, placing strong emphasis on international aviation agreements. After obtaining negotiating mandates from Council, a number of EU-level comprehensive agreements are coming to fruition, with some now awaiting signature or ratification. This is an updated and expanded edition of an ‘at a glance’ note from November 2016, PE 593.524.

EU external aviation policy

04-10-2019

The 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation ('Chicago Convention') is the chief regulatory framework for international civil aviation, but also the most important primary source of public international aviation law and the umbrella under which bilateral air service agreements have been developed. While early bilateral air service agreements between states were quite restrictive, to protect their respective flag carriers, the United States proposed a more flexible model of bilateral air services ...

The 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation ('Chicago Convention') is the chief regulatory framework for international civil aviation, but also the most important primary source of public international aviation law and the umbrella under which bilateral air service agreements have been developed. While early bilateral air service agreements between states were quite restrictive, to protect their respective flag carriers, the United States proposed a more flexible model of bilateral air services agreements in the early 1990s, the 'Open Skies' agreements. Challenges to these agreements on the grounds that some of their provisions did not conform to Community law, led to the 2002 European Court of Justice 'Open Skies' judgments. These judgments triggered the development of an EU external aviation policy, leading to the conclusion of horizontal agreements and the negotiation and conclusion of comprehensive EU agreements with some neighbouring countries and key trading partners. To tackle the challenges currently facing international air transport and, in particular, increased competition from third countries, in December 2015, the Commission adopted a new aviation strategy for Europe that places great emphasis on the EU's external dimension, which the EU has started delivering, for instance with the adoption of a new EU tool to ensure fair competition between Union and third-country air carriers and the ongoing negotiations for new air transport agreements. This is an updated edition of a Briefing published in November 2016: PE 582.021.

Monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from maritime transport

04-10-2019

In February 2019, the Commission adopted a proposal to revise the EU system for monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from maritime transport, in order to align it with the global data collection system introduced by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The existing EU system requires ships above 5 000 gross tonnes using European ports to monitor and report fuel consumption and CO2 emissions per voyage and on an annual basis, starting with the year 2018. The IMO system ...

In February 2019, the Commission adopted a proposal to revise the EU system for monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from maritime transport, in order to align it with the global data collection system introduced by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The existing EU system requires ships above 5 000 gross tonnes using European ports to monitor and report fuel consumption and CO2 emissions per voyage and on an annual basis, starting with the year 2018. The IMO system requires ships above 5 000 gross tonnes on international voyages to report consumption data for fuel oil, hours underway and distance travelled. The system entered into force on 1 March 2018, and reporting starts with the year 2019. The proposed revision aims to facilitate the simultaneous application of the two systems, while preserving the objectives of the current EU legislation. In the European Parliament, the ENVI committee has appointed Jutta Paulus (Greens/EFA, Germany) as rapporteur for the file. The Environment Council discussed the proposal in June 2019. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

ICAO Agreement on CO2 emissions from aviation

23-09-2019

At its 39th triennial Assembly in 2016, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) reached an agreement to tackle international aviation emissions. The first agreement of this type applying to a specific sector of the economy, its key component is the establishment of a global market-based measure to offset CO2 emissions from international aviation. Work is going on, at both EU and ICAO level, in order to have the new system operational in 2021.

At its 39th triennial Assembly in 2016, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) reached an agreement to tackle international aviation emissions. The first agreement of this type applying to a specific sector of the economy, its key component is the establishment of a global market-based measure to offset CO2 emissions from international aviation. Work is going on, at both EU and ICAO level, in order to have the new system operational in 2021.

'Shift to Rail' – Research for the EU rail sector

09-09-2019

Rail is one of the main pillars of the EU transport decarbonisation strategy, and research is instrumental to achieving more competitive and resource-efficient railways. To this end, an EU public-private partnership, the ‘Shift to Rail’ Joint Undertaking, was established in 2014 under the Horizon 2020 programme to boost and coordinate research and innovation in rail products, processes and services. The first projects were launched in 2015 and the first results presented in 2018.

Rail is one of the main pillars of the EU transport decarbonisation strategy, and research is instrumental to achieving more competitive and resource-efficient railways. To this end, an EU public-private partnership, the ‘Shift to Rail’ Joint Undertaking, was established in 2014 under the Horizon 2020 programme to boost and coordinate research and innovation in rail products, processes and services. The first projects were launched in 2015 and the first results presented in 2018.

Research for TRAN Committee - EU funding of transport projects

15-07-2019

This study provides an analysis of the most important EU funding instruments currently available for transport projects with the aim to evaluate the extent to which they are fulfilling strategic EU policy goals. Based on a thorough assessment of the overall performance of these instruments (through previous reports, interviews and case studies), and after identifying the main opportunities and challenges they will face in the future, the study proposes a set of recommendations on how to improve their ...

This study provides an analysis of the most important EU funding instruments currently available for transport projects with the aim to evaluate the extent to which they are fulfilling strategic EU policy goals. Based on a thorough assessment of the overall performance of these instruments (through previous reports, interviews and case studies), and after identifying the main opportunities and challenges they will face in the future, the study proposes a set of recommendations on how to improve their effectiveness and contribution to EU added value in the future.

Ulkopuolinen laatija

José Manuel VASSALLO, Laura GARRIDO

What if policy anticipated advances in science and technology?

26-06-2019

What if blockchain revolutionised voting? What if your emotions were tracked to spy on you? And what if we genetically engineered an entire species? Science and policy are intricately connected. Via monthly 'What if' publications, the Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA; part of the European Parliamentary Research Service) draws Members of the European Parliament's attention to new scientific and technological developments relevant for policy-making. The unit also provides administrative support to the ...

What if blockchain revolutionised voting? What if your emotions were tracked to spy on you? And what if we genetically engineered an entire species? Science and policy are intricately connected. Via monthly 'What if' publications, the Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA; part of the European Parliamentary Research Service) draws Members of the European Parliament's attention to new scientific and technological developments relevant for policy-making. The unit also provides administrative support to the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA), which brings together 25 Members from nine different parliamentary committees who share a strong interest in science and technology in the context of policy-making.

Port reception facilities for ship waste: Collecting waste from ships in ports

07-06-2019

Marine litter and pollution put the marine environment at risk. While a great proportion of marine litter originates from land-based sources, limiting waste discharges from ships also plays an essential role in efforts to preserve marine and coastal ecosystems. Based on international law, EU legislation requires vessels to bring the waste they generate on voyages to waste-reception facilities in port, and obliges EU ports to provide such facilities to ships using the port. Despite these developments ...

Marine litter and pollution put the marine environment at risk. While a great proportion of marine litter originates from land-based sources, limiting waste discharges from ships also plays an essential role in efforts to preserve marine and coastal ecosystems. Based on international law, EU legislation requires vessels to bring the waste they generate on voyages to waste-reception facilities in port, and obliges EU ports to provide such facilities to ships using the port. Despite these developments, discharges at sea continue. In January 2018, the European Commission put forward a new legislative proposal seeking to improve the collection of ship waste while ensuring efficient maritime transport operations in ports. Interinstitutional negotiations concluded on 13 December 2018. The final text was adopted by the Parliament on 13 March 2019 and then by the Council on 29 March. The Directive was then signed on 17 April by the presidents of the two institutions and will be published in the Official Journal shortly.

CO2 standards for new cars and vans

28-05-2019

In November 2017, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on reducing CO2 emissions from new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (vans). The proposed measures and targets are aligned with the 2030 climate and energy framework and with the energy union strategy, which envisages a reduction in transport emissions and energy consumption. The Commission sets new targets for the EU fleetwide average CO2 emissions of new passenger cars and vans. Average CO2 emissions from new ...

In November 2017, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on reducing CO2 emissions from new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (vans). The proposed measures and targets are aligned with the 2030 climate and energy framework and with the energy union strategy, which envisages a reduction in transport emissions and energy consumption. The Commission sets new targets for the EU fleetwide average CO2 emissions of new passenger cars and vans. Average CO2 emissions from new passenger cars and vans registered in the EU would have to be 15 % lower in 2025, and 30 % lower in 2030, compared to their respective limits in 2021. The proposal includes a dedicated incentive mechanism for zero- and low-emission vehicles, in order to accelerate their market uptake. Interinstitutional trilogue negotiations concluded in December with an agreement setting a 37.5 % CO2 reduction target for new cars by 2030, and a 31 % target for new vans. Parliament approved the agreed text on 27 March 2019. The regulation was published in the Official Journal on 25 April 2019. It entered into force on 15 May 2019 and will apply from 1 January 2020. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Tulevat tapahtumat

16-10-2019
State of the Union: The view from regions and cities
Muu tapahtuma -
EPRS
17-10-2019
What Europe is Thinking: The latest Pew survey of opinion in 14 EU Member States
Muu tapahtuma -
EPRS
05-11-2019
The Art and Craft of Political Speech-writing: A conversation with Eric Schnure
Muu tapahtuma -
EPRS

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