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In just over a decade, the payment industry has seen the launch of cryptocurrencies and their explosive growth, driven by progress in digital technology applications. However, owing to a range of factors, not least their significant volatility, cryptocurrencies have not been adopted on a massive scale, but instead are used largely for speculative purposes. Both national authorities and the private sector have attempted to tackle volatility. The private sector's answer was stablecoins, that is, cryptocurrencies ...

Proper implementation of EU law is essential to deliver the EU policy goals as defined in the Treaties and secondary legislation. This briefing aims to give an overview of the transposition and implementation of Directive 2014/52/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment (the EIA Directive). It presents the key elements of this Directive. The amendments brought by Directive 2014/52/EU to the previous legal text aim to improve the quality of Environmental ...

Revolving doors in the EU and US

Briefing 04-07-2018

The flow of officials and politicians between the public and private sector has in the past few years given rise to calls for more transparency and accountability. In order to mitigate the reputational damage to public institutions by problematic use of the 'revolving door', this phenomenon is increasingly being regulated at national level. In the United States, President Trump recently changed the rules put in place by his predecessor to slow the revolving door. As shown by press coverage, the US ...

Horizon 2020

Briefing 03-10-2017

Horizon 2020 – the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014-2020) – is the main instrument financing research and innovation in the European Union and the successor to seven previous Framework Programmes. It is an ambitious, flexible programme, unique in the world in terms of budget, duration, budgetary stability and scope. Since 2014 it has supported more than 13 000 projects in more than 130 participating countries and helped to respond to urgent societal challenges, such as the Ebola ...

L’objectif de cette présentation des options stratégiques est de donner aux députés au Parlement européen un aperçu des options politiques prospectives concernant le renforcement de la cybersécurité dans le cadre de la politique de sécurité et de défense commune de l’Union (PSDC). Les options politiques sont fondées sur l’étude STOA intitulée «Cybersecurity in the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) – Challenges and risks for the EU» (Cybersécurité dans la politique de sécurité et de défense ...

This study aims at mapping existing Gender Equality Plans (GEPs) in the public and private sectors in the Member States of the EU, as far as data is available; it aims at analysing how GEPs have impacted/are impacting the economic situation of women in the EU; analysing national legislation and collective agreements in connection with GEPs; analysing the impact of the crisis/austerity on GEPs and analyse more in-depth the substance and impact of GEPs in the private and public sectors in 2 Member ...

Horizon 2020, the EU framework programme for research and innovation (2014-2020) is aimed at building a society and an economy based on knowledge and innovation across the Union, while contributing to sustainable development. The programme supports the implementation of the Europe 2020 strategy and other Union policies, as well as the achievement and functioning of the European Research Area (ERA). The introduction to this European implementation assessment (EIA) presents basic information on the ...

En Europe, l’espace constitue une entreprise de coopération depuis plus de 50 ans. Les premières structures collaboratives entre les États membres dans les années 60 ont mené à la création de l’Agence spatiale européenne (ESA) en 1975. L’Union européenne est intervenue dans le domaine à partir des années 90, en particulier à travers la conception de programmes spatiaux européens : Galileo pour la navigation par satellite et Copernicus pour l’observation de la Terre, tous deux déployés en coopération ...

Serbia: Economic situation

En bref 17-07-2015

For decades, Serbia’s economy has been in a state of ongoing crisis. It was severely weakened by the long period of international economic sanctions, the civil war, and the damage caused to infrastructure and industry in the 1990s. The international financial crisis and multiple rounds of elections also delayed necessary reforms. In 2014, Serbia started negotiations for EU membership. In economic terms, it aims to build a fully functional market economy, by addressing overdue reforms. Economic recovery ...

This Study discusses the human rights issues raised by large-scale land deals for plantation agriculture (‘land grabbing’) in low and middle-income countries. Firstly, the Study takes stock of available data on large land deals, their features and their driving forces. It finds that ‘land grabbing’ is a serious issue requiring urgent attention. Secondly, the Study conceptualises the link between land deals and human rights, reviews relevant international human rights law and discusses evidence on ...