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In an effort to tackle the second wave of the coronavirus outbreak, EU Member States started reinstating restrictions on the freedom of movement in October 2020. To prevent a new series of severe and uncoordinated restrictions at countries' internal borders similar to those of March this year, there have been renewed efforts at the EU level to establish a coordinated approach towards coronavirus-related restrictions on movement. While the focus is now on the ongoing health crisis, concerns about ...

In its July 2020 Schrems II judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) declared the European Commission’s Privacy Shield Decision invalid on account of invasive US surveillance programmes, thereby making transfers of personal data on the basis of the Privacy Shield Decision illegal. Furthermore, the Court stipulated stricter requirements for the transfer of personal data based on standard contract clauses (SCCs). Data controllers or processors that intend to transfer data based on ...

While the coordination of cross-border interoperable COVID-19 contact tracing apps is a competence of the European Commission, their development is a national competence. This short briefing summarises the current efforts towards, functionalities of and technical decisions on the development of national COVID-19 apps, with a focus on the ongoing centralised vs. decentralised approach and the interoperability of different apps across Europe. All Member States and the Commission consider the interoperability ...

The scenes of devastation caused by recent hurricanes in the Caribbean are a stark reminder of the destructive force of nature. As residents struggle to rebuild their lives following the passage of the latest storms, attention turns to the relief efforts. The EU can help through emergency humanitarian assistance and a variety of funding mechanisms, depending on the status of the territories concerned and their relationship with the EU.

Could introducing more precision agriculture in Europe allow us to obtain food resilience, while ensuring sustainability and jobs, and taking into account the EU’s wide agricultural diversity? Precision agriculture (PA), or precision farming, involves using technology to improve the ratio between agricultural output (usually food) and agricultural input (land, energy, water, fertilisers, pesticides, etc.). PA consists of using sensors to identify crop or livestock needs precisely (in space or time ...

Les capacités spatiales autonomes jouent un rôle clé dans l'amélioration de l'appréciation de la situation, de la réaction aux crises complexes (catastrophes naturelles), de la gestion des ressources naturelles (eau, forêts), de la prestation de services (dans les domaines de la santé, de l'énergie, des transports, des communications, des prévisions météorologiques) et de la sécurité nationale. Étant donné l'augmentation du nombre de pays accédant à l'espace extra-atmosphérique, l'Union a intensifié ...

Drones are aircraft which are operated with no pilot on board. Initially developed for military and defence purposes, they are increasingly used for various civil purposes, including photography, rescue operations, infrastructure monitoring, farming and aerial mapping. Being aircraft, drones have to comply with aviation safety rules. International civil aviation rules adopted since 1944 at United Nations level prohibit unmanned aircraft from flying over another state’s territory without its permission ...

À la demande de la commission LIBE, cette étude porte sur les conséquences de l'intégration des drones à usage civil dans le système européen de l'aviation civile. Elle examine notamment la politique de l'Union européenne concernant les drones, les conséquences possibles de leur utilisation sur le droit des citoyens à la protection de la vie privée et des données à caractère personnel, et les implications d'une telle utilisation en matière de sécurité. L'étude arrive à la conclusion que plusieurs ...

Known as Remotely Piloted Air Systems (RPAS) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), drones have become increasingly present due to a sharp drop in production costs, as a consequence of recent innovations in light-weight materials, on-board computers, batteries and fuel tanks. Since their inception, drones have been developed for military purposes, with the inclusion of weapons in them, as well as for surveillance and policing efforts. Recently, however, other uses have proliferated, in the fields of ...

This document is a supplementary briefing to the Earth observation satellite data for commercial purposes: Initial Appraisal of a European Commission Impact Assessment based on the additional information contained in the Commission’s non-paper.