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This study examines the value added by the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) funding in four specific countries: Estonia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. Focusing on each country’s national plans for utilising the funding, we identify where national plans may have generated value added and where additional work is needed to make RRF funding more effective.

Estonia's Recovery and Resilience Plan – one of the last such plans submitted to the European Commission – sets out the reforms and public investment projects that Estonia intends to implement with the support of the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF). The RRF is one of the main components of Next Generation EU, an EU instrument to counter the impact of the coronavirus pandemic. Estonia's plan is one of the smallest in the EU in terms of the total amount allocated. However, when taking into account ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Estonia submitted its NECP in December 2019. Estonia recovered its independence in 1991 and joined the European Union in 2004. In the 1990s, the country launched structural reforms related to its transition to a market-based economy. In 2019, its total GHG emissions ...

On the back of a number of high profile cases and alleged cases of money laundering, this briefing presents current initiatives and actions aiming at reinforcing the anti-money laundering supervisory and regulatory framework in the EU. This briefing first outlines (1) the EU supervisory architecture and the respective roles of European and national authorities in applying anti-money laundering legislation that have been further specified in the 5th AML Directive and (2) ways that have been proposed ...

Digital technology brings greater efficiency in many walks of life, and elections are no exception. Online databases hugely facilitate the task of creating and managing accurate and up-to-date electoral rolls. In less developed countries, whose citizens often lack reliable identity documents, biometric technology can help to identify voters, thus preventing fraud in the form of multiple voting. However, for some aspects of election management, digitalisation is more controversial. Electronic voting ...

Persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia (‘respective non-citizen populations’) do not have the right to take part in the elections to the European Parliament. The position of Estonia and Latvia is that their respective non-citizen populations have certain legal links with respective States but that these populations are not their nationals. There are certain differences between persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia, both regarding ...

This in-depth analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, argues that Latvia and Estonia have introduced legal statuses –non-citizenship in Latvian and undetermined citizenship in Estonia – that are unique in the European Union in that they give their holders a status that is not citizenship but that is not statelessness either suggesting that the statuses give far-reaching rights to ...

Upon request by the PETI Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned this in-depth analysis on Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia. The writer claims that in order to understand the situation of political representation rights of ethnic and linguistic minorities in Estonia and Latvia it is essential to provide a historical-political framework that contextualizes the presence of such substantial minorities in the ...

Toomas Tõniste, Minister of Finance of Estonia, is participating in the ECON Committee in his capacity of the outgoing President of the ECOFIN Council following the Estonia’s Presidency (July - December 2017). Vladislav Goranov, Minister of Finance of Bulgaria, is participating in the ECON Committee in his capacity of the incoming President of the ECOFIN Council during the Bulgaria’s Presidency (January - July 2018). This briefing provides an overview of the main achievements of the Estonian Presidency ...

Toomas Töniste, Minister of Finance of Estonia, is participating in the ECON Committee as current President of the ECOFIN Council during the Estonia Presidency (July - December 2017). According to the Treaty of the Union “Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern and shall coordinate them within the Council”. This briefing reviews recent developments with regard to Economic Governance issues, including activities in the context of the European Semester, as well ...