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Government procurement forms an important part of national economies. The EU has opened up its public procurement markets to third countries to a large degree, while many other economies have had limited appetite to liberalise market access. In 2012, the European Commission tabled a proposal for an international procurement instrument (IPI). The IPI would give the EU leverage in negotiating the reciprocal opening of public procurement markets in third countries. The Commission revised the proposal ...

Non-military coercion, which means using economic means to achieve political goals, has become an increasingly serious problem for EU governments and businesses. Experts believe that China, traditionally an opponent of economic sanctions, has been deploying coercive economic practices with growing intensity and scope, particularly since the reappointment of Xi Jinping as the country's president in 2018. Frequently deployed to gain leverage on issues such as territorial and maritime disputes, these ...

Accounting for 17 % of the global average per capita intake of animal protein, fisheries products support many people's livelihoods and make a significant contribution to food security. However, more than a third of world stocks are fished at biologically unsustainable levels. Economic losses from the depletion of fish stocks are estimated at US$83 billion. A reduction in fishing capacity and effort would help stocks recover, yet many governments of fishing countries continue to support the sector ...

This analysis looks into the complex relationship between two trends in international governance: an increase in multilateral arrangements between countries in order to govern internationally on the one hand, and a lack of democratic control over the decisions taken by multilateral organisations or conferences on the other. Multilateralism in the modern sense refers to an international mode of operation involving peaceful negotiations and diplomacy, also referred to as a ‘rules-based international ...

From 12 to 17 June 2022, the World Trade Organization (WTO) held an extended 12th ministerial conference (MC12), after it had been postponed twice owing to the pandemic. Although the outcome of the MC12 was the result of hard-won compromises, it covers a wide range of key agenda items and may be said to provide new momentum for the WTO, which critics have often portrayed as moribund. The WTO has proved its centrality for crafting multilateral solutions for global challenges, notably against the backdrop ...

The coronavirus pandemic has rekindled the global debate on whether the multilateral trade regime for intellectual property rights (IPR) protection limits access to essential medical products. Despite embedded flexibilities in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), India and South Africa, co-sponsored by a large number of developing countries, submitted an initial proposal for a temporary waiver in response to Covid-19 in October 2020, ...

China has ratified numerous legally binding international agreements. Like other countries, it has a strong incentive to commit itself in this way: international agreements are a means of binding other treaty parties; strengthening international standing; creating a favourable legal framework for trade and investment; and, such as with the 1984 Sino-British Declaration on Hong Kong, settling territorial questions. At the same time, China has been careful to avoid making commitments in two areas in ...

This in-depth analysis summarizes the main effects of the Customs Union (CU) on EU-Turkey trade and the economic situation in Turkey. Whereas the CU offers Turkey several economic benefits, it also implies some downsides, in particular asymmetric tariffs in relation to third countries. Against the background of the dynamic development of EU-Turkey relations, the authors assess the impact of four different options for developing EU-Turkey economic and trade relations: (i) Continuation of the current ...

Supply chains are increasingly international, but many of EU's trade partners fail to meet both the labour standards of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and international human rights norms. EU trade policy is designed to ensure that economic development complies with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules, while upholding human rights and high labour standards. WTO rules require members to comply with a set of basic free trading principles, in particular national treatment and most-favoured ...

Le blocage, depuis décembre 2019, de l’organe d’appel permanent de l’organe de règlement des différends (ORD) de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) crée des lacunes juridiques en ce qui concerne le respect des règles du commerce international. Pour combler ces lacunes, la Commission européenne a proposé d’élargir le champ d’application du règlement (UE) no 654/2014 concernant l’exercice des droits de l’Union pour l’application et le respect des règles du commerce international (ci-après le ...