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Domaine politique
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Mali: Yet another coup

16-06-2021

On 24 May 2021, the Malian transitional government suffered a coup – the second in nine months – which cast a shadow on the transition process that should lead to a presidential election in early 2022. These developments risk further destabilising the Sahel and challenge the implementation of the new EU strategy in the region.

On 24 May 2021, the Malian transitional government suffered a coup – the second in nine months – which cast a shadow on the transition process that should lead to a presidential election in early 2022. These developments risk further destabilising the Sahel and challenge the implementation of the new EU strategy in the region.

New Ethiopian dam sparks controversy among Nile states

21-04-2021

Successive negotiation rounds between Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt about the filling and operation of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) have ended in stalemate. This new dam, built by Ethiopia on the Blue Nile (the Nile's main tributary), will bring into operation Africa's largest hydropower plant. It is expected to secure access to electricity for the majority of Ethiopians, to foster economic development and to provide revenues from the sale of surplus electricity abroad. For its part, Sudan ...

Successive negotiation rounds between Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt about the filling and operation of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) have ended in stalemate. This new dam, built by Ethiopia on the Blue Nile (the Nile's main tributary), will bring into operation Africa's largest hydropower plant. It is expected to secure access to electricity for the majority of Ethiopians, to foster economic development and to provide revenues from the sale of surplus electricity abroad. For its part, Sudan expects the new dam will not only help regulate the flow of the Nile and prevent devastating floods but also provide access to cheap energy; still, it fears the new dam will hinder the yield of its own dam – Roseires – situated within a short distance downstream. Egypt too is worried about the potential impact of the new dam on its own Aswan High Dam, and that it will give Ethiopia control over the flow of the Nile and reduce the fresh water available for Egyptians. Yet again, the GERD has reignited a long rivalry about the sharing of waters among the Nile basin countries. Most – including Ethiopia – have signed a comprehensive framework agreement on the water management of the Nile and its tributaries. However, Sudan and Egypt have refused to take part in the Nile basin comprehensive framework agreement, unless it recognises their right to oversee the use of most of the Nile waters, which a bilateral treaty of 1959 accorded to them, but which is contested by other basin countries. The EU supports the African Union in the quest for a negotiated solution on the GERD, which risks further setbacks due to the conflict in Ethiopia's Tigray region. This is an update of a Briefing published in December 2020. The author acknowledges the assistance of Christian Meseth from the Directorate-General for External Policies (DG EXPO) with the updating.

The external dimension of the new pact on migration and asylum: A focus on prevention and readmission

07-04-2021

The challenges posed by migration have put EU Member States' solidarity to the test. Responding to a European Council request, in September 2020 the European Commission proposed a new pact on migration and asylum, to reinforce solidarity among the Member States and to strengthen EU migration management and asylum procedures, while also making them more consistent. The proposed pact has an external aspect as well: building on current EU migration partnership frameworks, it aims to reinforce international ...

The challenges posed by migration have put EU Member States' solidarity to the test. Responding to a European Council request, in September 2020 the European Commission proposed a new pact on migration and asylum, to reinforce solidarity among the Member States and to strengthen EU migration management and asylum procedures, while also making them more consistent. The proposed pact has an external aspect as well: building on current EU migration partnership frameworks, it aims to reinforce international partnerships with a view to ensuring effective returns, combating migrant smuggling more effectively, and developing legal migration channels. In the context of migration, the EU's external policy has among its objectives to help third countries tackle the root causes of irregular migration or quests for asylum. The European Parliament often emphasises this point, while warning at the same time that security and migration management concerns should not result in diverting funds from core EU development cooperation objectives. This is also a concern among academia and non-governmental organisations dealing with migration issues: several have pointed out that the Commission's proposals for the above-mentioned pact and the working document, recommendations and legislative proposals accompanying it put a lesser emphasis on pathways to legal migration than on measures aimed at incentivising third countries to retain possible irregular migrants or to accept returns.

Une nouvelle stratégie UE-Afrique – un partenariat pour un développement durable et inclusif

22-03-2021

L’Union européenne (UE) et l’Union africaine (UA) ont des intérêts convergents dans un certain nombre de domaines, tels que la lutte contre le changement climatique et la promotion d’une croissance économique durable et créatrice d’emplois en Afrique. Toutefois, elles doivent encore trouver un terrain d’entente sur la migration, la gestion de la sécurité et les valeurs fondamentales. En mars 2020, la Commission européenne et le haut représentant de l’Union pour les affaires étrangères et la politique ...

L’Union européenne (UE) et l’Union africaine (UA) ont des intérêts convergents dans un certain nombre de domaines, tels que la lutte contre le changement climatique et la promotion d’une croissance économique durable et créatrice d’emplois en Afrique. Toutefois, elles doivent encore trouver un terrain d’entente sur la migration, la gestion de la sécurité et les valeurs fondamentales. En mars 2020, la Commission européenne et le haut représentant de l’Union pour les affaires étrangères et la politique de sécurité et vice-président de la Commission européenne (HR/VP) ont proposé de mettre en place un nouveau partenariat global avec l’Afrique, soulignant la volonté de l’UE de renforcer les liens entre les deux continents. Conformément à cette proposition de partenariat, le Parlement européen devrait débattre d’un rapport d’initiative au cours de sa période de session de mars II.

Charting a course through stormy waters: The EU as a maritime security actor

25-02-2021

The European Union (EU) is a one-of-a-kind maritime actor, which brings both opportunities and responsibilities. It is argued that if the EU-27 were to combine the capacities and capabilities of their navies, they would form one of the world's largest maritime powers. There is therefore space for better integration of capabilities and for greater coherence among the EU's tools to promote its multi-dimensional strategic maritime interests. As around 90 % of global goods are traded via maritime routes ...

The European Union (EU) is a one-of-a-kind maritime actor, which brings both opportunities and responsibilities. It is argued that if the EU-27 were to combine the capacities and capabilities of their navies, they would form one of the world's largest maritime powers. There is therefore space for better integration of capabilities and for greater coherence among the EU's tools to promote its multi-dimensional strategic maritime interests. As around 90 % of global goods are traded via maritime routes, freedom of navigation, security, sustainability and respect for international law are crucial for the EU. These routes are however becoming increasingly contested and restricted, reflecting new patterns of global power distribution. In the security and defence field, the EU's common security and defence policy instruments, particularly its missions and operations abroad, are the most visible manifestation of its maritime actorness. The maritime dimension of the EU's security and defence policy has been put in the spotlight by Portugal, the holder of the EU Council presidency in the first half of 2021. Two of the 17 EU missions and operations are naval military operations: EUNAVFOR Somalia Atalanta in the western part of the Indian Ocean, and EUNAVFOR MED Irini in the central part of the Mediterranean Sea. EU Member States also participate in multinational maritime coalitions as well as in NATO's own maritime operation, Sea Guardian, patrolling the entire Mediterranean Sea. In following the orientations provided by its maritime and global strategies, the EU is aiming to increase its capacity and reliability as a maritime security actor. One example is its coordinated maritime presences, launched in January 2021 with a pilot case in the Gulf of Guinea to boost the EU's maritime capacity and global outreach. Another is the EU's action to boost its maritime defence capabilities through the various post-2016 initiatives that aim to incentivise collaborative projects. Finally, the EU has also enhanced its cooperation with NATO in ensuring maritime security in the transatlantic space, although political obstacles remain.

International Agreements in Progress - After Cotonou: Towards a new agreement with the African, Caribbean and Pacific states

20-01-2021

The Cotonou partnership agreement between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) states was due to expire in February 2020. The then ACP Group of States – which later became the Organisation of the ACP States (OACPS) – and the EU started negotiations for a 'post-Cotonou' agreement in September 2018. This time around, the main challenge for the EU is to maintain its cooperation with the three OACPS sub-regions and to continue to promote the values enshrined in the EU ...

The Cotonou partnership agreement between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) states was due to expire in February 2020. The then ACP Group of States – which later became the Organisation of the ACP States (OACPS) – and the EU started negotiations for a 'post-Cotonou' agreement in September 2018. This time around, the main challenge for the EU is to maintain its cooperation with the three OACPS sub-regions and to continue to promote the values enshrined in the EU Treaties. At the same time, the new partnership should take into account the United Nations' sustainable development goals, the redefinition of the EU's strategies for the regions concerned, the ACP states' new ambitions and the changing balance of power at the global level. Both the EU and the OACPS have agreed on the principle of a common foundation complemented by three regional protocols. These multi-level negotiations, the coronavirus crisis and difficulties in reaching agreement on sensitive issues, such as migration management and sexual and reproductive health and rights, prevented the new agreement from being finalised by the initial expiry date set in the Cotonou Agreement. Thus, to avoid a legal vacuum in relations, the provisions of this agreement were extended until the end of 2021. After two years of negotiations, a political deal was reached in December 2020, including on the most complex issues. The European Parliament insisted on maintaining the ACP-EU joint parliamentary assembly and was successful in this endeavour; in addition, three regional parliamentary assemblies will be created in the future institutional set-up of the partnership.

Les droits de l’homme et la démocratie dans le monde

13-01-2021

Au cours de la session plénière de janvier 2021, le Parlement européen doit débattre du rapport annuel de l’Union sur les droits de l’homme et la démocratie dans le monde. Le dernier rapport annuel, adopté par le Conseil en juin 2020, souligne le rôle de premier plan joué par l’Union dans la promotion des droits de l’homme et de la démocratie en 2019, dans un contexte de tendances négatives à l’échelle mondiale. Le rapport de la commission des affaires étrangères du Parlement tient compte des évolutions ...

Au cours de la session plénière de janvier 2021, le Parlement européen doit débattre du rapport annuel de l’Union sur les droits de l’homme et la démocratie dans le monde. Le dernier rapport annuel, adopté par le Conseil en juin 2020, souligne le rôle de premier plan joué par l’Union dans la promotion des droits de l’homme et de la démocratie en 2019, dans un contexte de tendances négatives à l’échelle mondiale. Le rapport de la commission des affaires étrangères du Parlement tient compte des évolutions plus récentes, telles que l’incidence du coronavirus. Il fait observer que la réaction à la pandémie a entraîné un recul du respect des normes en matière de démocratie et de droits de l’homme dans certains pays. Sur la base de ce rapport, il est prévu que le Parlement formule des recommandations relatives à la future action de l’Union en faveur des droits de l’homme et de la démocratie.

Sudan: A transition under pressure

18-12-2020

One year after its inception, the transitional government of Sudan, born out of the protests that brought down the 30-year regime of Omar al-Bashir in 2019, continues to face grave challenges at domestic and international level. The hybrid government, composed of civilians and members of the security forces, declared that peace negotiations and tackling the economic crisis would be its priorities during a 39-month transitional period leading up to elections in 2022. On 3 October 2020, the government ...

One year after its inception, the transitional government of Sudan, born out of the protests that brought down the 30-year regime of Omar al-Bashir in 2019, continues to face grave challenges at domestic and international level. The hybrid government, composed of civilians and members of the security forces, declared that peace negotiations and tackling the economic crisis would be its priorities during a 39-month transitional period leading up to elections in 2022. On 3 October 2020, the government concluded a peace deal with several armed groups. Although spurned by the main armed group in Darfur, peace negotiations made headway towards addressing persistent inequalities between the centre and the peripheries, amending originally agreed power-sharing arrangements and securing a commitment from the new cabinet to hand over the suspects wanted by the International Criminal Court. Funding constraints could however threaten the implementation of a peace deal, as long-standing structural issues, unsustainable levels of debt and crippling inflation already beset Sudan's economy, further damaged by the impact of the lockdown imposed in response to the Covid-19 pandemic. Economic concerns have spilled over onto the diplomatic sphere: under US pressure, Sudan has agreed to a rapprochement with Israel in order to secure its removal from the US terror list, a prerequisite for obtaining debt relief. This has further tested the coalition's coherence, and public support for government policies. The EU has been supporting the transition towards a civilian government and has pledged a massive rise in development and humanitarian funding.

Amending the European Fund for Sustainable Development

19-10-2020

The EU is in the process of adapting its budgetary instruments to respond to the consequences of the coronavirus crisis, in particular in raising the established ceilings for some financial instruments. The proposed adjustments include, among other things, measures aimed at helping the most fragile third countries recover from the consequences of the pandemic. In particular, on 28 May 2020, the European Commission put forward a proposal concerning the European Fund for Sustainable Development (EFSD ...

The EU is in the process of adapting its budgetary instruments to respond to the consequences of the coronavirus crisis, in particular in raising the established ceilings for some financial instruments. The proposed adjustments include, among other things, measures aimed at helping the most fragile third countries recover from the consequences of the pandemic. In particular, on 28 May 2020, the European Commission put forward a proposal concerning the European Fund for Sustainable Development (EFSD) in order to expand its coverage and raise the funds dedicated to leverage private investment for sustainable development and the guarantees to de-risk such investment. On 21 July 2020, the European Council rejected the draft amending budget that would have provided increased EFSD funding for the current year.

World Food Programme: Food for peace

15-10-2020

On 9 October 2020, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) 'for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict'. Adding to a worrying rise in food insecurity, the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic have pushed millions more people to the brink of famine. The WFP's ...

On 9 October 2020, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) 'for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict'. Adding to a worrying rise in food insecurity, the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic have pushed millions more people to the brink of famine. The WFP's expertise on emergencies, often in conflict areas, has provided relief to the most fragile populations. The EU supports the WFP through funding, knowledge-sharing, and protecting its vessels from piracy in certain waters.

Evénements à venir

16-06-2021
Public hearing on “Future of EU-UK fisheries relations after Brexit”
Audition -
PECH
16-06-2021
Echange de vues avec la commission des finances de l'Assemblée nationale
Autre événement -
FISC
16-06-2021
Joint Hearing on "How to treat farmers in a fair and equal manner across the EU"
Audition -
PETI AGRI

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