101

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Mot-clé
Date

Critical raw materials for the EU: Enablers of the green and digital recovery

18-12-2020

The pandemic has highlighted the risk involved, including for the EU, in relying heavily on external suppliers. The EU's 30 critical raw materials (CRMs) combine two characteristics: they are strategically important for its industry and economy, and there are high risks associated with securing their supply. The notion of strategic autonomy, which has been gaining track recently, calls for a more autonomous and independent EU policy, also in the area of CRMs. Importantly, the core of the EU's response ...

The pandemic has highlighted the risk involved, including for the EU, in relying heavily on external suppliers. The EU's 30 critical raw materials (CRMs) combine two characteristics: they are strategically important for its industry and economy, and there are high risks associated with securing their supply. The notion of strategic autonomy, which has been gaining track recently, calls for a more autonomous and independent EU policy, also in the area of CRMs. Importantly, the core of the EU's response to the pandemic has been to use it to transform its economy and society. The twin transition to a green and digital future relies particularly on the safe and diverse supply of CRMs. In its journey to a low-carbon economy, the EU should however make sure it does not replace its reliance on fossil fuels with a reliance on CRMs. While secure access to CRMs has been on the EU agenda for many years, the European Commission has eagerly stepped up its policy in this area since the beginning of its current term, and in September 2020 delivered a new package of measures. These included a new action plan for CRMs that supports initiatives in four main areas: i) developing resilient value chains for EU industrial ecosystems; ii) supporting sustainable and environmentally friendly domestic mining and processing of raw materials in the EU extraction (with priority given to former coal-mining regions); iii) weakening dependency on primary CRMs through better circular use of resources, environmentally friendly products and innovation; and iv) diversifying supply with sustainable and responsible sourcing from third countries. The EU has also launched the European Raw Materials Alliance, joining together the industry, researchers, Member States and civil society to close the main gaps in the value chains. The European Parliament has been a long-standing supporter of boosting all the elements of CRMs value chains to ensure the security of supply and weaken unwanted dependencies.

Important projects of common European interest: Boosting EU strategic value chains

12-11-2020

Article 107(3)(b) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union provides for the possibility of approving state aid for 'important projects of common European interest' (IPCEIs). These provisions have been used very rarely until recently. A specific framework enabling the creation of IPCEIs, originally only in the areas of research, development and innovation, and environmental protection has been in place for 15 years, yet only four such projects have been notified to and assessed by the ...

Article 107(3)(b) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union provides for the possibility of approving state aid for 'important projects of common European interest' (IPCEIs). These provisions have been used very rarely until recently. A specific framework enabling the creation of IPCEIs, originally only in the areas of research, development and innovation, and environmental protection has been in place for 15 years, yet only four such projects have been notified to and assessed by the Commission so far. The first two – in the area of infrastructure – were partially annulled by the Court of Justice, and the Commission opened in-depth investigations to examine their compatibility with State aid. One of those concluded that the aid was legal, the other is ongoing. The next two were launched successfully in the areas of strategic value chains for microelectronics and batteries. After this rather modest start, there seems to be strong momentum to create more IPCEIs, including in the context of the debate on how to foster the emergence of 'European champions'. The marked political shift towards greater technological sovereignty and strategic autonomy within the EU has been given further impetus with the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, which disrupted global value chains and highlighted the case for a more self-sufficient EU model. IPCEIs may be useful tools for creating complex new value chains that have the potential to ensure the EU's long-term competitiveness and economic growth. A growing number of governments, experts and organisations have been calling for the simplification of current rules to make IPCEIs more frequently and widely used. The European Parliament would also like to see the requirements for the IPCEIs streamlined to allow smaller industrial research projects also to acquire IPCEI status. In its 2021 work programme, the European Commission announced the revision of the current IPCEI framework planned for the fourth quarter of the year.

Solvency Support Instrument

06-10-2020

In May 2020, the European Commission adopted a proposal on a Solvency Support Instrument. The aim is to support otherwise viable companies in the Union that face solvency difficulties as a result of the coronavirus crisis, and to mitigate possible distortions to the single market and its level playing field. Such distortions are to be expected given the differing degree to which the Member States are affected and the likely unevenness of their responses, which may depend on their fiscal capacity ...

In May 2020, the European Commission adopted a proposal on a Solvency Support Instrument. The aim is to support otherwise viable companies in the Union that face solvency difficulties as a result of the coronavirus crisis, and to mitigate possible distortions to the single market and its level playing field. Such distortions are to be expected given the differing degree to which the Member States are affected and the likely unevenness of their responses, which may depend on their fiscal capacity and level of debt. The Commission proposes to increase the guarantee provided to the European Investment Bank under the European Fund for Strategic Investments and to use it to support financial intermediaries, which will then select companies eligible for solvency help. At the European Council meeting in July 2020, EU Heads of State or Government did not take up the idea of the solvency support instrument. Both the European Parliament and Commission President, Ursula von der Leyen, have expressed regret at this. Continuing the examination of the proposal in Parliament, the co-rapporteurs have published a draft report in which they propose to widen the scope of eligible companies and ensure fair geographical distribution.

The future of tertiary education in Europe

28-09-2020

This analysis focuses on six challenges facing tertiary education in the EU: the need to maintain relevance to current and future aspirations, the impact of digital and disruptive technologies, the way it collaborates with business, global and intra-EU collaboration, quality assurance, financing and barriers to inclusion. It also looks at trends in two of the largest higher education systems outside the European Higher Education Area, those in the United States and China. This provides the backdrop ...

This analysis focuses on six challenges facing tertiary education in the EU: the need to maintain relevance to current and future aspirations, the impact of digital and disruptive technologies, the way it collaborates with business, global and intra-EU collaboration, quality assurance, financing and barriers to inclusion. It also looks at trends in two of the largest higher education systems outside the European Higher Education Area, those in the United States and China. This provides the backdrop to discuss how the next Multiannual Financial Framework, which is currently under negotiation, will put tools at the EU's disposal to exert some influence on the future trajectory of tertiary education, as well as the European Parliament's role in these negotiations.

Technologies de rupture: Incidences sur la vie politique, l’économie et la société

21-09-2020

Depuis longtemps, l’évolution des technologies est considérée comme une force de rupture, qui induit des transformations à différents niveaux, depuis les activités quotidiennes routinières des individus jusqu’à la spectaculaire concurrence entre les superpuissances mondiales. Cette analyse examine les ruptures amenées par la technologie dans divers domaines clés de la politique, de l’économie et de la société. Elle aborde sept aspects: le système économique, les activités militaires et la défense ...

Depuis longtemps, l’évolution des technologies est considérée comme une force de rupture, qui induit des transformations à différents niveaux, depuis les activités quotidiennes routinières des individus jusqu’à la spectaculaire concurrence entre les superpuissances mondiales. Cette analyse examine les ruptures amenées par la technologie dans divers domaines clés de la politique, de l’économie et de la société. Elle aborde sept aspects: le système économique, les activités militaires et la défense, le débat démocratique et l’«infosphère», les normes, valeurs et identités sociales, les relations internationales et le système juridique. Elle présente également la surveillance comme un exemple de la manière dont les bouleversements technologiques de ces divers domaines peuvent converger pour induire d’autres phénomènes. Le facteur à l’origine de la plus grande rupture de 2020 n’est pas d’ordre technologique: c’est le coronavirus. La pandémie sert ici de matière à l’examen des interactions entre les ruptures technologiques et d’autres formes de ruptures.

Single market and the pandemic: Impacts, EU action and recovery

18-06-2020

The coronavirus crisis caused an asymmetric shock to both supply and demand in the EU, inflicting unprecedented economic harm: the deep recession in 2020 is likely to be followed by a fragile recovery in 2021. The downside risks are high and there is a strong possibility of further deterioration. European economies are highly integrated: about two-thirds of the EU's total trade in goods takes place on the single market, through its tightly knit network of supply chains, financial connections and ...

The coronavirus crisis caused an asymmetric shock to both supply and demand in the EU, inflicting unprecedented economic harm: the deep recession in 2020 is likely to be followed by a fragile recovery in 2021. The downside risks are high and there is a strong possibility of further deterioration. European economies are highly integrated: about two-thirds of the EU's total trade in goods takes place on the single market, through its tightly knit network of supply chains, financial connections and trade relationships. However, the pandemic has severely impacted the free movement of persons, goods and services in the EU, on which the market is based. While the depth of the economic downturn and the strength of recovery vary across EU Member States, many of those that were hardest hit by the pandemic happen to have the least policy space to respond to it. Left unaddressed, an uneven recovery across the EU risks creating divergences, fragmentation and permanent damage to the single market, which will have a negative impact on the EU's recovery as a whole. The EU has acted on many fronts since the onset of the crisis. Initially, it provided first-response measures – such as the suspension of State aid rules and a roadmap for lifting containment measures – designed to address multiple emergencies in the single market and the EU economy. It has also developed a comprehensive longer-term response to enable economic recovery and repair the damage inflicted by the crisis, while at the same time protecting and deepening the single market and rendering it more autonomous. The EU will offer large-scale asymmetric support and financial support, that will be distributed through existing and novel instruments. Some experts warn that the proposed recovery plan, while a step in the right direction, may be financially insufficient and too slow to disburse. The European Parliament has asked for a major recovery package worth €2 trillion.

Digital taxation: State of play and way forward

19-03-2020

The digitalisation of the economy and society poses new tax policy challenges. One of the main questions is how to correctly capture value and tax businesses characterised by a reliance on intangible assets, no or insignificant physical presence in the tax jurisdictions where commercial activities are carried out (scale without mass), and a considerable user role in value creation. Current tax rules are struggling to cope with the emerging realities of these new economic models. The European Union ...

The digitalisation of the economy and society poses new tax policy challenges. One of the main questions is how to correctly capture value and tax businesses characterised by a reliance on intangible assets, no or insignificant physical presence in the tax jurisdictions where commercial activities are carried out (scale without mass), and a considerable user role in value creation. Current tax rules are struggling to cope with the emerging realities of these new economic models. The European Union (EU) and other international bodies have been discussing these issues for some time. In March 2018, the EU introduced a 'fair taxation of the digital economy' package. It contained proposals for an interim and long-term digital tax. The European Parliament supported both proposals, widening their scope and coverage and backing integration of digital tax into the proposed Council framework on corporate taxation. However, there was no immediate political agreement in the Council. As finding a global solution at Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) level or a coordinated EU approach was not yet feasible, some Member States started implementing or designing national digital taxes. As an indication of difficulties around this issue, the introduction of these taxes in France heightened trade tensions between the EU and the United States of America, with the latter favouring a 'voluntary' tax system – a position which may prevent a global agreement. Over the last few years, the OECD has nevertheless made progress on developing a global solution and proposed a two-pillar system: while the first pillar (unified approach) would grant new taxation rights and review the current profit allocation and business location-taxation rules, the second (GloBE) aims to mitigate risks stemming from the practices of profit-shifting to jurisdictions where they can be subjected to no, or very low, taxation. The EU is committed to supporting the OECD's work, but if no solution is found by the end of 2020, it will again make a proposal for its own digital tax.

Rapport annuel sur la politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne

04-03-2020

Au cours de la session de mars I, le Parlement examinera le rapport annuel 2019 sur la politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne, adopté par la commission des affaires économiques et monétaires. Ce rapport souligne l’orientation de plus en plus internationale prise par la politique de concurrence à l’ère de la mondialisation et de la numérisation de l’économie. Il met également l’accent sur l’efficacité des instruments de la politique de concurrence et sur la façon dont ils peuvent être utilisés ...

Au cours de la session de mars I, le Parlement examinera le rapport annuel 2019 sur la politique de concurrence de l’Union européenne, adopté par la commission des affaires économiques et monétaires. Ce rapport souligne l’orientation de plus en plus internationale prise par la politique de concurrence à l’ère de la mondialisation et de la numérisation de l’économie. Il met également l’accent sur l’efficacité des instruments de la politique de concurrence et sur la façon dont ils peuvent être utilisés pour soutenir le pacte vert pour l’Europe.

Is data the new oil? Competition issues in the digital economy

08-01-2020

The global debate on the extent to which current competition policy rules are sufficient to deal with the fast-moving digital economy has never been more pertinent. An important part of this debate concerns the market power of large high-tech companies that dominate many online markets. The main factors behind these developments are economies of scale and scope, network externalities, and the rising economic significance of data, which are a highly valuable commodity in an online economy. While being ...

The global debate on the extent to which current competition policy rules are sufficient to deal with the fast-moving digital economy has never been more pertinent. An important part of this debate concerns the market power of large high-tech companies that dominate many online markets. The main factors behind these developments are economies of scale and scope, network externalities, and the rising economic significance of data, which are a highly valuable commodity in an online economy. While being indispensable to the development of potential game changers – such as artificial intelligence – data are also a crucial input to many online services, production processes, and logistics – making it a critical element in the value chain of many different industries. Data-dependent markets are also characterised by a high level of concentration and, according to many experts, high entry barriers relating to access to and ownership of data – which make it difficult to challenge the incumbent companies. On the other hand, the large players are generally considered to be very productive and innovative. Some studies, however, show that the diffusion of know-how and innovation between the market leaders and the rest of the economy may be affecting competiveness in general. One possible way to correct these shortcomings is to regulate the sharing of data. While the risks of policy-making in this field are generally well-known and centre around the need to protect privacy – particularly where personal data are involved – and to prevent the collusive aspects of data sharing, there is currently no global model to follow. The European Union has taken multiple initiatives to unlock data markets through modern, user-centred laws such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the regulation on the reuse of public sector information. The global thinking seems to gradually favour more prudent oversight of the market, considering its economic heft.

La politique industrielle de l’Union européenne à un tournant: État des lieux, défis et voie à suivre

02-12-2019

L’industrie joue un rôle primordial dans le modèle de croissance économique de l’Union. Fortement atteinte par de nouvelles forces perturbantes qui vont de l’essor des nouvelles technologies à la redistribution du pouvoir économique mondial en passant par l’évolution des situations géopolitiques, elle se trouve toutefois actuellement à un tournant. La résolution de ces problèmes soulève un certain nombre de dilemmes majeurs, tels que la nécessité de poursuivre sur la voie de l’ouverture du marché ...

L’industrie joue un rôle primordial dans le modèle de croissance économique de l’Union. Fortement atteinte par de nouvelles forces perturbantes qui vont de l’essor des nouvelles technologies à la redistribution du pouvoir économique mondial en passant par l’évolution des situations géopolitiques, elle se trouve toutefois actuellement à un tournant. La résolution de ces problèmes soulève un certain nombre de dilemmes majeurs, tels que la nécessité de poursuivre sur la voie de l’ouverture du marché et des échanges tout en protégeant l’industrie de la concurrence déloyale, ou de promouvoir une industrie plus verte et plus durable tout en préservant sa compétitivité sur la scène mondiale. Elle suscite également une réorientation du positionnement stratégique de l’Union, traditionnellement défensif, vers une politique offensive. Cette évolution a donné lieu à un vif débat concernant la nécessité d’une nouvelle politique industrielle au niveau de l’Union, qui serait plus affirmée, plus globale et mieux coordonnée. Le présent document réexamine la situation actuelle et les principaux défis auxquels l’Union est confrontée et fournit une analyse des principales options stratégiques pour l’avenir.

Evénements à venir

25-01-2021
Public Hearing on "Gender aspects of precarious work"
Audition -
FEMM
26-01-2021
Public hearing on Co-management of EU fisheries at local level
Audition -
PECH
26-01-2021
The impact of Brexit on the level playing field in the area of taxation
Audition -
FISC

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