45

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Mot-clé
Date

The situation in Afghanistan: Essential benchmarks for EU engagement

17-09-2021

The departure of United States (US) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) troops from Afghanistan marks the end of a 20-year military campaign that was launched in 2001 to eliminate the Taliban's ability to provide sanctuary for international terrorists, especially al-Qaeda, and stabilise the country with the help of a democratically elected government. However, as the last US soldier boarded a US military aeroplane on 31 August 2021, terrorists were firing rockets at Kabul airport, members ...

The departure of United States (US) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) troops from Afghanistan marks the end of a 20-year military campaign that was launched in 2001 to eliminate the Taliban's ability to provide sanctuary for international terrorists, especially al-Qaeda, and stabilise the country with the help of a democratically elected government. However, as the last US soldier boarded a US military aeroplane on 31 August 2021, terrorists were firing rockets at Kabul airport, members of the democratically elected government, including the president, had either fled abroad or were in hiding, and the Taliban had taken back control of most of Afghanistan. On 7 September 2021, the Taliban announced an all-male caretaker government drawn entirely from the Taliban movement, contrary to earlier promises that the new government would be 'inclusive'. So far, no country has recognised the interim government. There have been reports of reprisals against security personnel, individuals with links to the previous administration and foreign forces, journalists and minorities, in particular. The rights to education and employment that women have enjoyed for the past 20 years are meanwhile being curtailed. In the meantime, the humanitarian situation in the country is increasingly desperate. The country relies extensively on foreign aid, most of which is currently suspended, while foreign assets have been frozen. Many Afghans have fled to neighbouring countries, joining the estimated 3-4 million Afghan refugees already living there, mainly in Iran and Pakistan. The EU has expressed concerns over the composition of the interim government, noting that an inclusive and representative government – which the interim government is not – is an essential benchmark for EU engagement. The EU has made available large amounts of humanitarian and development aid and is hoping to establish a diplomatic presence on the ground in Kabul. The EU is also planning to set up a regional platform for cooperation with Afghanistan's neighbours on issues including population flows from Afghanistan, terrorism, organised crime and drugs. This Briefing expands and updates an ‘At a glance’ note published on 2 September 2021.

Afghanistan once more under Taliban rule

02-09-2021

The departure of United States (US) and NATO troops from Afghanistan marks the end of a 20-year military campaign that was launched in 2001 to eliminate the Taliban's ability to provide sanctuary to international terrorists, especially al-Qaeda, and stabilise the country with the help of a democratically elected government. However, as the last US soldier boarded a US military plane on 31 August 2021, terrorists were firing rockets at Kabul airport, members of the democratically elected government ...

The departure of United States (US) and NATO troops from Afghanistan marks the end of a 20-year military campaign that was launched in 2001 to eliminate the Taliban's ability to provide sanctuary to international terrorists, especially al-Qaeda, and stabilise the country with the help of a democratically elected government. However, as the last US soldier boarded a US military plane on 31 August 2021, terrorists were firing rockets at Kabul airport, members of the democratically elected government, including the president, had either fled abroad or were in hiding, and the Taliban were back in control over most of Afghanistan. The Taliban have yet to announce the nature and the full composition of their new government. In the meantime, the humanitarian situation in the country is increasingly desperate. The country relies extensively on foreign aid, most of which is currently suspended, while foreign assets have been frozen.

Review of dual-use export controls

20-07-2021

Certain goods and technologies have legitimate civilian applications but can also be used for military purposes; so-called 'dual-use' goods are subject to the European Union's export control regime. The regime has just been revised, mainly to take account of significant technological developments, increase transparency and create a more level playing field among EU Member States. The proposed regulation will recast the regulation in force since 2009. Among other elements, the proposal explicitly ...

Certain goods and technologies have legitimate civilian applications but can also be used for military purposes; so-called 'dual-use' goods are subject to the European Union's export control regime. The regime has just been revised, mainly to take account of significant technological developments, increase transparency and create a more level playing field among EU Member States. The proposed regulation will recast the regulation in force since 2009. Among other elements, the proposal explicitly defines cyber-surveillance technology as dual-use technology and introduces human rights violations as an explicit justification for export control. It also includes provisions to control emerging technologies. The proposed regulation introduces greater transparency into dual-use export control by increasing the level of detail Member States will have to provide on exports, licences, licence denials and prohibitions. On 17 January 2018, based on the INTA committee's report on the legislative proposal, the European Parliament adopted its position for trilogue negotiations. For its part, the Council adopted its negotiating mandate on 5 June 2019, and on the basis of this mandate, the Council Presidency began negotiations with the European Parliament's delegation on 21 October 2019. Trilogue negotiations ended on 9 November 2020, with agreement on a final compromise text. Endorsed by the INTA committee on 30 November, the Parliament formally voted on the text in plenary on 25 March 2021. The Regulation was published in the Official Journal on 11 June 2021 and enters into force on 8 September 2021. Seventh edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

A new neighbourhood, development and international cooperation instrument – Global Europe

20-07-2021

In the context of the Commission's proposal for a multiannual financial framework (MFF) for the 2021-2027 period, on 14 June 2018 the Commission published a proposal for a regulation establishing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument. Council and Parliament agreed in trilogue negotiations, which ended in March 2021, that Parliament would have an enhanced role in defining the main strategic choices of the instrument, through a delegated act and twice-yearly geopolitical ...

In the context of the Commission's proposal for a multiannual financial framework (MFF) for the 2021-2027 period, on 14 June 2018 the Commission published a proposal for a regulation establishing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument. Council and Parliament agreed in trilogue negotiations, which ended in March 2021, that Parliament would have an enhanced role in defining the main strategic choices of the instrument, through a delegated act and twice-yearly geopolitical dialogue. The Commission also committed to inform Parliament prior to any use of the 'emerging challenges and priorities cushion', and take its remarks into consideration. Parliament insisted that any activities related to migration had to be in line with the objectives of the instrument, and also secured safeguards on the amounts for capacity-building, election observation missions, local authorities, Erasmus, the Pacific and the Caribbean. Negotiators also agreed to include a reference, in a recital, to existing EU financial rules that allow for the suspension of assistance if a country fails to observe the principles of democracy, human rights and the rule of law. As a final step, negotiators agreed to change the name of the instrument to the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument - Global Europe. After formal adoption by Council and Parliament the regulation was signed on 9 June 2021, and it entered into force on 14 June 2021. The regulation applies retroactively from 1 January 2021. Sixth edition. The 'Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

US and NATO leave Afghanistan: What next?

14-07-2021

Following the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, United States (US) counterterrorism efforts began to focus on Afghanistan. The Taliban, which controlled most of Afghanistan in 2001, hosted al-Qaeda and its leader, Osama bin Laden, the mastermind of the 9/11 attacks. During a 20-year military campaign, the US and its allies sought to eliminate the Taliban's ability to provide sanctuary to international terrorists and stabilise the country with the help of a democratically elected government. ...

Following the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, United States (US) counterterrorism efforts began to focus on Afghanistan. The Taliban, which controlled most of Afghanistan in 2001, hosted al-Qaeda and its leader, Osama bin Laden, the mastermind of the 9/11 attacks. During a 20-year military campaign, the US and its allies sought to eliminate the Taliban's ability to provide sanctuary to international terrorists and stabilise the country with the help of a democratically elected government. The peace agreement the US signed with the Taliban in 2020 paved the way for the withdrawal of US and NATO troops. Shortly after taking office, US President Joe Biden announced in April 2021 that all US troops would leave Afghanistan by 11 September 2021. All allied troops will also leave the country by that deadline. In recent months, the Taliban have re-established control over half of the districts in the country, raising concerns about the future of Afghanistan once foreign troops leave.

Nuclear Safety outside the EU: Proposal for a new Council regulation

02-07-2021

In the context of the multiannual financial framework (MFF) for the 2021-2027 period, the Council has adopted Council Regulation (Euratom) 2021/948 of 27 May 2021 establishing a European instrument for international nuclear safety cooperation complementing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument – Global Europe on the basis of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. Regulation 2021/948 complements, but is separate from, the new Global Europe Instrument ...

In the context of the multiannual financial framework (MFF) for the 2021-2027 period, the Council has adopted Council Regulation (Euratom) 2021/948 of 27 May 2021 establishing a European instrument for international nuclear safety cooperation complementing the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument – Global Europe on the basis of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. Regulation 2021/948 complements, but is separate from, the new Global Europe Instrument. Regulation 2021/948 replaces Council Regulation (Euratom) No 237/2014 of 13 December 2013 establishing an instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (INSC). It continues to fund the important activities carried out under the previous regulation, namely to support the promotion of a high level of nuclear safety and radiation protection and the application of effective and efficient safeguards of nuclear materials in third countries, building on the activities under the Euratom Treaty. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Instrument de voisinage, de coopération au développement et de coopération internationale

02-06-2021

La proposition de règlement établissant l’instrument de voisinage, de coopération au développement et de coopération internationale relève de la rubrique 6 «Voisinage et monde» du nouveau cadre financier pluriannuel (CFP), qui définit les principales priorités de l’action extérieure de l’Union européenne pour la période 2021-2027. L’instrument proposé, doté d’un budget de 70,8 milliards d’euros aux prix de 2018, regroupe dix instruments et fonds distincts qui existaient dans le CFP 2014-2020, ainsi ...

La proposition de règlement établissant l’instrument de voisinage, de coopération au développement et de coopération internationale relève de la rubrique 6 «Voisinage et monde» du nouveau cadre financier pluriannuel (CFP), qui définit les principales priorités de l’action extérieure de l’Union européenne pour la période 2021-2027. L’instrument proposé, doté d’un budget de 70,8 milliards d’euros aux prix de 2018, regroupe dix instruments et fonds distincts qui existaient dans le CFP 2014-2020, ainsi que le Fonds européen de développement, qui ne relevait pas jusqu’à présent du budget général de l’Union. Le Parlement européen devrait voter en deuxième lecture lors de sa session plénière de juin I sur le texte convenu à la suite des négociations interinstitutionnelles.

European Peace Facility - Investing in international stability and security

02-06-2021

A key objective of the EU's external action is to preserve peace, prevent conflicts and strengthen international security, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter. In the context of its common foreign and security policy (CFSP), the Union offers assistance to third states, international organisations and regional organisations engaged in peace support operations. Moreover, the EU's common security and defence policy (CSDP) – part of the CFSP – provides the Union ...

A key objective of the EU's external action is to preserve peace, prevent conflicts and strengthen international security, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter. In the context of its common foreign and security policy (CFSP), the Union offers assistance to third states, international organisations and regional organisations engaged in peace support operations. Moreover, the EU's common security and defence policy (CSDP) – part of the CFSP – provides the Union with its own operational capacity, allowing it to deploy civilian and military assets (provided by the EU Member States) in third countries. While many of the operations and missions the EU supports have military and defence implications, the EU cannot finance activities with military or defence implications from the EU budget. EU Member States therefore have mechanisms to fund expenditure with military and defence implications directly from national budgets. The European Peace Facility (EPF) is a new off-budget fund with a financial ceiling of €5.692 billion financed by Member State contributions. The EPF, which will be operational by 1 July 2021, will make it easier for Member States to share the costs of EU military operations. It will also help the EU to support military peace-support operations conducted by third countries and regional organisations, anywhere in the world. Controversially, for the first time, the EU will be able to provide the armed forces of partner countries with infrastructure and equipment, including weapons. Several non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have warned that the new facility risks fuelling conflict and human rights abuses around the world. They warn that this could exacerbate violence and arms proliferation, and fuel the very dynamics the EPF seeks to address. By contrast, practitioners believe the facility will ensure that the EU is taken seriously as a security provider and is able to maintain its influence in conflict areas. The Council has called for swift operationalisation of the EPF and has invited Member States and the High Representative to present proposals for assistance measures.

Contrôle des exportations, des transferts, du courtage, de l’assistance technique et du transit en ce qui concerne les biens à double usage

22-03-2021

Il existe des biens et des technologies qui se prêtent à des applications civiles légitimes mais qui peuvent également être utilisés à des fins militaires. Ces biens et technologies, dits «à double usage», sont soumis au régime de contrôle des exportations de l’Union européenne. Le régime de contrôle de l’Union est en cours de révision, principalement pour tenir compte des évolutions technologiques importantes survenues, accroître la transparence et créer des conditions de concurrence plus équitables ...

Il existe des biens et des technologies qui se prêtent à des applications civiles légitimes mais qui peuvent également être utilisés à des fins militaires. Ces biens et technologies, dits «à double usage», sont soumis au régime de contrôle des exportations de l’Union européenne. Le régime de contrôle de l’Union est en cours de révision, principalement pour tenir compte des évolutions technologiques importantes survenues, accroître la transparence et créer des conditions de concurrence plus équitables entre les États membres de l’Union. La proposition fixerait de nouvelles limites à l’exportation des biens de cybersurveillance et renforcerait les considérations relatives aux droits de l’homme. Le Parlement européen devrait voter sur le texte convenu à la suite des négociations interinstitutionnelles au cours de la période de session de mars II.

Treaty on the prohibition of nuclear weapons ─ The 'Ban Treaty'

20-01-2021

On 22 January 2021, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (the TPNW) enters into force. On that day, nuclear weapons development, testing, production, possession, stockpiling, use and threat of use, as well as the stationing or deployment of another country's nuclear weapons on a state party's national territory will become prohibited under international law. The TPNW has been hailed as historic by supporters of an initiative, which has gained ground in recent years, to rid the world of ...

On 22 January 2021, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (the TPNW) enters into force. On that day, nuclear weapons development, testing, production, possession, stockpiling, use and threat of use, as well as the stationing or deployment of another country's nuclear weapons on a state party's national territory will become prohibited under international law. The TPNW has been hailed as historic by supporters of an initiative, which has gained ground in recent years, to rid the world of the most destructive weapon known to humankind. The International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN), which spearheaded these efforts, was awarded the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize. Supporters hope that the TPNW will strengthen the international legal framework and gradually advance the political norm against nuclear weapons possession and use. Opponents of the Treaty argue that the conditions for disarmament do not currently exist and that promoters of the TPNW fail to recognise this. They also point to the danger of undermining the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), recognised as the cornerstone of the global non-proliferation and disarmament regime, including by proponents of the TPNW. The nine states known to have military nuclear programmes have not signed the TPMW. Nor have Member States of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which in 2016 re-confirmed its commitment to nuclear deterrence. This raises doubts about the impact of this new instrument and its ability to create normative values. Most EU Member States, 21 of which are members of NATO, oppose the TPNW, and only three have ratified it. The European Parliament has noted that the TPNW provided evidence of the desire to achieve the objective of a nuclear weapons-free world. This is an updated version of an earlier briefing, from January 2018.

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