83

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Domaine politique
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EU-India: Cooperation on digitalisation

12-10-2020

A 'human-centric digitalisation to develop inclusive economies and societies' is the main concept behind the digital transformation of both the EU and India. During their July 2020 summit, the two agreed to promote global digitalisation standards characterised by 'safe and ethical deployment'. Their flagship initiatives – the EU digital single market and 'Digital India' – make them natural partners in the promotion of these global standards. Yet, if their ICT cooperation is to make sound progress ...

A 'human-centric digitalisation to develop inclusive economies and societies' is the main concept behind the digital transformation of both the EU and India. During their July 2020 summit, the two agreed to promote global digitalisation standards characterised by 'safe and ethical deployment'. Their flagship initiatives – the EU digital single market and 'Digital India' – make them natural partners in the promotion of these global standards. Yet, if their ICT cooperation is to make sound progress, some of Delhi's protectionist policies need further consideration.

Connecting Europe Facility 2021-2027: Financing key EU infrastructure networks

17-06-2020

The EU supports the development of high-performing, sustainable and interconnected trans-European networks in the areas of transport, energy and digital infrastructure. It set up the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) as a dedicated financing instrument for the 2014-2020 period, to channel EU funding into the development of infrastructure networks, help eliminate market failures and attract further investment from the public and private sectors. Following a mid-term evaluation, the European Commission ...

The EU supports the development of high-performing, sustainable and interconnected trans-European networks in the areas of transport, energy and digital infrastructure. It set up the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) as a dedicated financing instrument for the 2014-2020 period, to channel EU funding into the development of infrastructure networks, help eliminate market failures and attract further investment from the public and private sectors. Following a mid-term evaluation, the European Commission proposed to renew the programme under the next long term EU budget. Negotiations between the Council and the European Parliament on the content of the proposal reached a partial provisional agreement, leaving aside the budget section and the questions relating to third countries. The agreement was approved by EU ambassadors and adopted by the Parliament at first reading on 17 April 2019. Discussions in the Council on the EU's 2021-2027 budget resumed when the Finnish Presidency of the Council published its ‘negotiating box’ in December 2019 and then with the proposal put forward in February 2020 by the President of the European Council, Charles Michel. However, Member States have not yet reached an agreement. In reaction to the coronavirus crisis and to the demand of the European Council, the Commission proposed an EU recovery fund and the adjusted Multiannual Financial Framework on 27 May 2020, also modifying the amounts to be allocated to the 2021-2027 CEF programme. Fourth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Les effets de la communication sans fil 5G sur la santé humaine

11-02-2020

Les technologies mobiles de cinquième génération, ou 5G, sont indispensables pour parvenir à une société européenne du gigabit d’ici 2025. La couverture de toutes les zones urbaines, des chemins de fer et des principaux réseaux routiers avec une communication sans fil ininterrompue de cinquième génération ne pourra être possible qu’en créant un réseau très dense d’antennes et d’émetteurs. En d’autres termes, le nombre de stations de base à fréquence plus élevée et d’autres dispositifs va considérablement ...

Les technologies mobiles de cinquième génération, ou 5G, sont indispensables pour parvenir à une société européenne du gigabit d’ici 2025. La couverture de toutes les zones urbaines, des chemins de fer et des principaux réseaux routiers avec une communication sans fil ininterrompue de cinquième génération ne pourra être possible qu’en créant un réseau très dense d’antennes et d’émetteurs. En d’autres termes, le nombre de stations de base à fréquence plus élevée et d’autres dispositifs va considérablement augmenter. Cela soulève la question de savoir si les fréquences plus élevées et les milliards de connexions supplémentaires auront des effets néfastes sur la santé humaine et sur l’environnement, du fait, selon des travaux de recherche, de l’exposition constante pour l’ensemble de la population, y compris les enfants. Si, de manière générale, les chercheurs considèrent que ces ondes radio ne constituent pas une menace pour la population, les recherches effectuées jusqu’à présent n’ont pas porté sur l’exposition constante que la 5G induirait. Par conséquent, une partie de la communauté scientifique considère qu’il est nécessaire d’effectuer des recherches plus approfondies sur les potentiels effets biologiques négatifs des champs électromagnétiques (CEM) et de la 5G, notamment sur d’éventuelles maladies humaines graves. Il apparaît également nécessaire de réunir des chercheurs de différentes disciplines, comme la médecine, la physique ou l’ingénierie, pour mener des recherches approfondies sur les effets de la 5G. Les dispositions actuelles de l’Union européenne sur l’exposition aux signaux radio, figurant dans la recommandation du Conseil relative à la limitation de l’exposition du public aux champs électromagnétiques (de 0 Hz à 300 GHz), ont été énoncées il y a 20 ans et ne prennent donc pas en considération les caractéristiques techniques spécifiques de la 5G.

Common rules for the internal electricity market

12-07-2019

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a recast directive on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package entitled 'Clean Energy for all Europeans'. The proposed directive would oblige Member States to ensure a more competitive, customer-centred, flexible and non-discriminatory EU electricity market with market-based supply prices. It would strengthen existing customer rights, introduce new ones and provide a framework ...

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a recast directive on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package entitled 'Clean Energy for all Europeans'. The proposed directive would oblige Member States to ensure a more competitive, customer-centred, flexible and non-discriminatory EU electricity market with market-based supply prices. It would strengthen existing customer rights, introduce new ones and provide a framework for energy communities. Member States would have to monitor and address energy poverty. The proposal clarifies the tasks of distribution system operators and emphasises the obligation of neighbouring national regulators to cooperate on issues of cross-border relevance. The Council adopted its general approach in December 2017. In the European Parliament, the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) adopted its report in February 2018. A provisional trilogue agreement was reached in December 2018. The European Parliament adopted the text in the March II 2019 plenary session and the Council on 22 May 2019. The Directive entered into force on 4 July 2019 and must be transposed into national legislation by 31 December 2020. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

ENISA and a new cybersecurity act

05-07-2019

In September 2017, the Commission adopted a cybersecurity package with new initiatives to further improve EU cyber-resilience, deterrence and defence. As part of these, the Commission tabled a legislative proposal to strengthen the EU Agency for Network Information Security (ENISA). Following the adoption of the Network Information Security Directive in 2016, ENISA is expected to play a broader role in the EU's cybersecurity landscape but is constrained by its current mandate and resources. The Commission ...

In September 2017, the Commission adopted a cybersecurity package with new initiatives to further improve EU cyber-resilience, deterrence and defence. As part of these, the Commission tabled a legislative proposal to strengthen the EU Agency for Network Information Security (ENISA). Following the adoption of the Network Information Security Directive in 2016, ENISA is expected to play a broader role in the EU's cybersecurity landscape but is constrained by its current mandate and resources. The Commission presented an ambitious reform proposal, including a permanent mandate for the agency, to ensure that ENISA can not only provide expert advice, as has been the case until now, but can also perform operational tasks. The proposal also envisaged the creation of the first voluntary EU cybersecurity certification framework for ICT products, where ENISA will also play an important role. Within the European Parliament, the Industry, Research and Energy Committee adopted its report on 10 July 2018. An agreement was reached with the Council during the fifth trilogue meeting, on 10 December 2018. The text was adopted by the European Parliament on 12 March and by the Council on 9 April 2019. The new regulation came into force on 27 June 2019. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Copyright in the digital single market

14-06-2019

The European Commission presented a legislative package for the modernisation of the EU copyright rules, including a new directive on copyright in the digital single market, on 14 September 2016. Stakeholders and academics were strongly divided on the proposal. In February 2019, after more than two years of protracted negotiations, the co-legislators agreed on a new set of copyright rules, including two controversial provisions: 1) the creation of a new right that will allow press publishers to claim ...

The European Commission presented a legislative package for the modernisation of the EU copyright rules, including a new directive on copyright in the digital single market, on 14 September 2016. Stakeholders and academics were strongly divided on the proposal. In February 2019, after more than two years of protracted negotiations, the co-legislators agreed on a new set of copyright rules, including two controversial provisions: 1) the creation of a new right that will allow press publishers to claim remuneration for the online use of their publications (Article 15), and 2) the imposition of content monitoring measures on online platforms such as YouTube, which seeks to resolve the 'value gap' and help rights-holders to better monetise and control the distribution of their content online (Article 17). Furthermore, in addition to the mandatory exception for text and data mining for research purposes proposed by the Commission in its proposal, the co legislators agreed to enshrine in EU law another mandatory exception for general text and data mining (Article 4) in order to contribute to the development of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The European Parliament (in plenary) and the Council approved the compromise text in March 2019 and in April 2019 respectively. The directive was published on 15 May 2019 in the Official Journal of the European Union, and all Member States must transpose the new rules into their national law by June 2021. Fifth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Revision of the European Electronic Tolling Service (EETS) Directive

25-04-2019

On 31 May 2017, the Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems and facilitating cross-border exchange of information on the failure to pay road fees in the Union. It was presented within the context of the Commission's first 'Europe on the Move' package that seeks to modernise mobility and transport. Tying in with the 2015 energy union strategy and the Commission's 2016 European strategy for low emission mobility, and announced in the 2017 ...

On 31 May 2017, the Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems and facilitating cross-border exchange of information on the failure to pay road fees in the Union. It was presented within the context of the Commission's first 'Europe on the Move' package that seeks to modernise mobility and transport. Tying in with the 2015 energy union strategy and the Commission's 2016 European strategy for low emission mobility, and announced in the 2017 Commission work programme, the revision of the European Electronic Tolling Service (EETS) was presented together with the revision of the directive on the charging of heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain infrastructures (the Eurovignette Directive). Interinstitutional (trilogue) negotiations concluded on 20 November 2018. The agreed text was formally adopted by Parliament on 14 February 2019 and by Council on 4 March 2019. The final act was then published in the Official Journal on 29 March 2019. Member States now have until 19 October 2021 to apply the directive’s measures in their national laws.