191

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Auteur
Date

Improving the resilience of critical entities

23-02-2021

This briefing finds that the European Commission's impact assessment (IA), which accompanies the directive proposal on the resilience of critical entities, provides a good evidence-based problem definition and a sufficiently broad range of options. The assessment is mostly qualitative, due to difficulties in quantification. The IA could have been more transparent in its description of stakeholder views, and could have provided due references and a link to the feasibility study which has supported ...

This briefing finds that the European Commission's impact assessment (IA), which accompanies the directive proposal on the resilience of critical entities, provides a good evidence-based problem definition and a sufficiently broad range of options. The assessment is mostly qualitative, due to difficulties in quantification. The IA could have been more transparent in its description of stakeholder views, and could have provided due references and a link to the feasibility study which has supported the IA. Further explanations to support the preferred option in terms of efficiency would have benefited the analysis.

The NIS2 Directive: A high common level of cybersecurity in the EU

19-02-2021

The Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity, and its specific aim was to achieve a high common level of cybersecurity across the Member States. While it increased the Member States' cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has ...

The Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity, and its specific aim was to achieve a high common level of cybersecurity across the Member States. While it increased the Member States' cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has submitted a proposal to replace the NIS Directive and thereby strengthen the security requirements, address the security of supply chains, streamline reporting obligations, and introduce more stringent supervisory measures and stricter enforcement requirements, including harmonised sanctions across the EU. The proposed expansion of the scope covered by the NIS2, by effectively obliging more entities and sectors to take measures, would assist in increasing the level of cybersecurity in Europe in the longer term. Within the European Parliament, the file has been assigned to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Improving the common level of cybersecurity across the EU

11-02-2021

Drawing on the findings of an evaluation of the NIS directive, the IA generally seems to provide a clear and relevant analysis of the shortcomings of the existing NIS Directive and the available policy options for their improvement by a new legal act. It appears that the IA's assumptions are based on a thorough stocktaking exercise involving the consultation of a big number of stakeholders. The IA could however have explained in closer detail practical implications of the proposed initiative. It ...

Drawing on the findings of an evaluation of the NIS directive, the IA generally seems to provide a clear and relevant analysis of the shortcomings of the existing NIS Directive and the available policy options for their improvement by a new legal act. It appears that the IA's assumptions are based on a thorough stocktaking exercise involving the consultation of a big number of stakeholders. The IA could however have explained in closer detail practical implications of the proposed initiative. It would have been useful if the IA had provided a fuller impact analysis particularly of potential economic costs and fundamental rights implications, as noted in the RSB opinion. Finally, the range of options assessed is limited to two in addition to the baseline. Given that the final outcome of the assessment is a significant revision of the existing legal framework, one might have expected a more granular formulation of policy options in the IA.

European critical infrastructure: Revision of Directive 2008/114/EC

03-02-2021

Council Directive 2008/114/EC is part of the EU framework for critical infrastructure protection. While embracing an all-hazards approach, its scope is limited to the sectors energy and transport. This is widely considered a shortcoming. Calls for broadening its scope and for refocussing the directive on resilience rather than just protection, and interconnectivity of critical infrastructures resulted in a new legislative proposal the Commission presented in December 2020.

Council Directive 2008/114/EC is part of the EU framework for critical infrastructure protection. While embracing an all-hazards approach, its scope is limited to the sectors energy and transport. This is widely considered a shortcoming. Calls for broadening its scope and for refocussing the directive on resilience rather than just protection, and interconnectivity of critical infrastructures resulted in a new legislative proposal the Commission presented in December 2020.

How the COVID-19 crisis has affected security and defence-related aspects of the EU

27-01-2021

This paper looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic has directly and indirectly affected European security and defence. It documents how missions and operations of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) were directly impacted. It finds that COVID-19 has accentuated already recognised capacity shortfalls of the CSDP, such as strategic airlift, secure communications and command and control. Defence spending through EU instruments, and to a lesser extent at national level, has come under pressure although ...

This paper looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic has directly and indirectly affected European security and defence. It documents how missions and operations of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) were directly impacted. It finds that COVID-19 has accentuated already recognised capacity shortfalls of the CSDP, such as strategic airlift, secure communications and command and control. Defence spending through EU instruments, and to a lesser extent at national level, has come under pressure although it may still escape post-2008 style cuts. The pandemic revealed the vulnerabilities of Member States’ infrastructure and supply chains, and the limited competences of the EU in supporting Member States’ management of public health emergencies. COVID-19 tends to act as a threat multiplier and source of instability, particularly in low-income countries already affected by socio-economic imbalances and governance problems. The pandemic is likely to accelerate existing trends, including the declining share of the US and the EU in the world economy compared to Asia, intensifying concerns about China’s growing assertiveness, growing attention to IT security and cyber capabilities, and the interconnection between conventional and unconventional security risks. This analysis also looks at which lessons the EU should learn in order to better manage and prepare for such crises. At a strategic level, the EU needs to invest in lesson learning exercises with the European Parliament playing a key role in making the learning publicly accessible. It should also be proactive in shaping international discourses about international governance and the role of the EU post COVID-19. Furthermore, the paper elaborates 19 short and longer-term recommendations, for instance, on how CSDP missions can become more resilient in public health emergencies and which capability shortfalls need addressing most; how defence spending can be made more efficient and better targeted; or how the EU can help to better coordinate military support to civilian authorities. Finally, it advocates investment in health intelligence and better managing the biosecurity risks arising from growing access to dual-use technologies. The EU should forge a preventive approach to future pandemics and associated risks and embrace a comprehensive approach to security and resilience. Yet, one should not lose sight of the distinctive function of the CSDP and what it can currently deliver.

Auteur externe

Christoph O. Meyer, Sophia Besch, Prof. Martin Bricknell, Dr Ben Jones Christoph O. MEYER, Martin BRICKNELL, Ramon PACHECO PARDO, Ben JONES.

Understanding EU counter-terrorism policy

14-01-2021

Faced with a persistent international terrorist threat, the European Union (EU) is playing an ever more ambitious role in counter-terrorism. Even though primary responsibility for combating crime and ensuring security lies with the Member States, the EU provides cooperation, coordination and (to some extent) harmonisation tools, as well as financial support, to address this borderless phenomenon. Moreover, the assumption that there is a connection between development and stability, as well as between ...

Faced with a persistent international terrorist threat, the European Union (EU) is playing an ever more ambitious role in counter-terrorism. Even though primary responsibility for combating crime and ensuring security lies with the Member States, the EU provides cooperation, coordination and (to some extent) harmonisation tools, as well as financial support, to address this borderless phenomenon. Moreover, the assumption that there is a connection between development and stability, as well as between internal and external security, has come to shape EU action beyond its own borders. EU spending in the area of counter-terrorism has increased over the years, to allow for better cooperation between national law enforcement authorities and enhanced support by the EU bodies in charge of security and justice, such as Europol, eu-LISA and Eurojust. The many new rules and instruments that have been adopted in recent years range from harmonising definitions of terrorist offences and sanctions, and sharing information and data, to protecting borders, countering terrorist financing, and regulating firearms. However, implementing and evaluating the various measures is a challenging task. The European Parliament has played an active role not only in shaping legislation, but also in evaluating existing tools and gaps through the work accomplished by its Special Committee on Terrorism (TERR) in 2018. In line with the Parliament's recommendations, as well as the priorities set by the new European Commission and its counter-terrorism agenda presented in December 2020, future EU counter-terrorism action will focus on better anticipating threats, countering radicalisation and reducing vulnerabilities, by making critical infrastructures more resilient and better protecting public spaces. Upcoming developments also include increased information-sharing, by means of better implementation and modernisation of existing tools, a reinforced mandate for Europol, as well as possible investigation and prosecution of terrorist crimes at EU level, through the proposed extension of the mandate of the recently established European Public Prosecutor's Office. This briefing builds on an earlier one, entitled 'The fight against terrorism', published in 2019.

Mise en œuvre de la politique de sécurité et de défense commune

13-01-2021

C’est avec sa politique de sécurité et de défense commune (PSDC) que l’Union européenne (UE) contribue le plus au renforcement de la paix et de la sécurité internationales. C’est sur cette politique, consacrée par le traité de Lisbonne, que repose principalement l’action commune des États membres de l’UE dans le domaine de la sécurité et de la défense. Le Parlement européen votera sur le rapport annuel 2020 relatif à la PSDC lors de sa session plénière de janvier 2021.

C’est avec sa politique de sécurité et de défense commune (PSDC) que l’Union européenne (UE) contribue le plus au renforcement de la paix et de la sécurité internationales. C’est sur cette politique, consacrée par le traité de Lisbonne, que repose principalement l’action commune des États membres de l’UE dans le domaine de la sécurité et de la défense. Le Parlement européen votera sur le rapport annuel 2020 relatif à la PSDC lors de sa session plénière de janvier 2021.

Mise en œuvre de la politique étrangère et de sécurité commune (PESC)

13-01-2021

Au moyen de la politique étrangère et de sécurité commune (PESC), l’Union européenne s’efforce de développer des relations et de construire des partenariats avec les pays tiers et avec les organisations internationales, régionales ou mondiales qui partagent les principes relatifs aux droits de l’homme, à la démocratie et aux libertés fondamentales. .La PESC favorise des solutions multilatérales aux problèmes communs dans le respect du droit international et des valeurs internationales. Le Parlement ...

Au moyen de la politique étrangère et de sécurité commune (PESC), l’Union européenne s’efforce de développer des relations et de construire des partenariats avec les pays tiers et avec les organisations internationales, régionales ou mondiales qui partagent les principes relatifs aux droits de l’homme, à la démocratie et aux libertés fondamentales. .La PESC favorise des solutions multilatérales aux problèmes communs dans le respect du droit international et des valeurs internationales. Le Parlement européen votera sur le rapport annuel 2020 relatif à la PESC lors de sa session plénière de janvier 2021.

EU foreign, security and defence policies [What Think Tanks are thinking]

27-10-2020

The European Union faces multifaceted foreign security and defence policy challenges. First and foremost, it awaits the outcome of the US Presidential election, which is set to determine in significant part global economic and political developments in the short to medium term. The Union also faces a tough choice about how to treat China: more as a rival or as a partner, and in which areas? An increasingly assertive Russia represents yet another challenge. The EU’s stance on climate, migration, Africa ...

The European Union faces multifaceted foreign security and defence policy challenges. First and foremost, it awaits the outcome of the US Presidential election, which is set to determine in significant part global economic and political developments in the short to medium term. The Union also faces a tough choice about how to treat China: more as a rival or as a partner, and in which areas? An increasingly assertive Russia represents yet another challenge. The EU’s stance on climate, migration, Africa, terrorism and developments in its near neighbourhood add to this complex scene. This note offers links to recent commentaries, studies and reports from major international think tanks on EU foreign, security and defence policies.

Mise en œuvre et gouvernance de la coopération structurée permanente (CSP)

14-10-2020

Créée en 2017, la CSP est un mécanisme de coopération militaire et de défense fondé sur les traités, auquel participent 25 États membres de l’Union européenne. Elle entend jouer un rôle essentiel pour permettre à l’Union européenne d’assumer plus de responsabilités en matière de sécurité en réduisant la fragmentation de l’industrie de la défense et en renforçant sa capacité de gestion des crises au moyen de projets collaboratifs. Étant donné que la CSP a fait l’objet d’un réexamen stratégique au ...

Créée en 2017, la CSP est un mécanisme de coopération militaire et de défense fondé sur les traités, auquel participent 25 États membres de l’Union européenne. Elle entend jouer un rôle essentiel pour permettre à l’Union européenne d’assumer plus de responsabilités en matière de sécurité en réduisant la fragmentation de l’industrie de la défense et en renforçant sa capacité de gestion des crises au moyen de projets collaboratifs. Étant donné que la CSP a fait l’objet d’un réexamen stratégique au cours de l’année 2020, un projet de recommandation sur sa mise en œuvre et sa gouvernance devrait être mis aux voix lors de la période de session plénière d’octobre II.

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