241

résultat(s)

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Type de publication
Domaine politique
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Date

Les politiques de l’Union – Au service des citoyens: Promouvoir l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes

28-06-2019

L’Union européenne, qui s’est engagée à éliminer les inégalités et à promouvoir l’égalité des genres «dans toutes ses activités», a accompli des progrès considérables au cours des dernières années. Néanmoins, la situation reste inégale dans l’Union et, ces derniers temps, les progrès ont ralenti, stagné, voire régressé dans certains domaines. Or, les avantages de l’égalité des genres pour les personnes, l’économie et la société dans son ensemble ont été clairement démontrés. Les enquêtes d’opinion ...

L’Union européenne, qui s’est engagée à éliminer les inégalités et à promouvoir l’égalité des genres «dans toutes ses activités», a accompli des progrès considérables au cours des dernières années. Néanmoins, la situation reste inégale dans l’Union et, ces derniers temps, les progrès ont ralenti, stagné, voire régressé dans certains domaines. Or, les avantages de l’égalité des genres pour les personnes, l’économie et la société dans son ensemble ont été clairement démontrés. Les enquêtes d’opinion publique montrent que, selon la grande majorité des Européens, promouvoir l’égalité des genres est important pour une société juste et démocratique, pour l’économie et pour eux à titre personnel, et qu’une part croissante des citoyens souhaiteraient que l’Union fasse davantage dans ce domaine. Les Européens attendent de l’Union qu’elle renforce son action politique à cet égard. Au cours de la dernière législature, dans le cadre d’un programme plus large concernant l’égalité des genres, les institutions de l’Union ont travaillé sur des propositions de nouveaux textes législatifs européens visant à améliorer l’équilibre entre vie professionnelle et vie privée ainsi qu’à lutter contre la violence envers les femmes. La promotion de l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes restera l’un des principaux défis à relever dans les années à venir. Les tendances démographiques, les progrès technologiques et les changements apportés à la manière dont nous travaillons ne sont que quelques-unes des questions dont il nous faudra prendre en considération les différentes incidences sur les femmes et sur les hommes. L’Union pourrait poursuivre son engagement dans ce domaine, par exemple, en améliorant la mise en œuvre et l’exécution de la législation existante, en agissant pour la moderniser, en comblant les lacunes en matière de protection et en résolvant les problèmes émergents, ainsi qu’en prenant des mesures non législatives, telles que la collecte et la surveillance de données, la sensibilisation et le soutien aux initiatives nationales et au niveau local. Pour ce faire, il conviendra, à tous les niveaux, d’afficher la volonté politique d’aborder ces questions à travers un large éventail de politiques et de mettre à disposition les institutions, outils et ressources nécessaires pour concrétiser cette détermination. Le présent document est une mise à jour d’un note plus ancienne, publiée avant les élections européennes 2019.

Les politiques de l’Union – Au service des citoyens: Droits de l’homme

28-06-2019

Au cours des 70 années qui se sont écoulées depuis l’adoption de la déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme (le premier document international à définir des normes communes que tous les États doivent respecter), le rôle central et la signification morale, juridique et politique des droits de l’homme sur la scène internationale sont devenus indiscutables. Toutefois, malgré les progrès considérables réalisés dans de nombreux domaines concernant leur reconnaissance, leur codification et leur application ...

Au cours des 70 années qui se sont écoulées depuis l’adoption de la déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme (le premier document international à définir des normes communes que tous les États doivent respecter), le rôle central et la signification morale, juridique et politique des droits de l’homme sur la scène internationale sont devenus indiscutables. Toutefois, malgré les progrès considérables réalisés dans de nombreux domaines concernant leur reconnaissance, leur codification et leur application, les droits de l’homme sont également visés par un nombre croissant d’attaques. Que ce soit dans des zones de guerre ou dans la sphère politique, on assiste désormais souvent à un rejet des droits de l’homme pour des raisons idéologiques. L’Union européenne elle-même n’est pas épargnée par ce contrecoup. Dans ses États membres, une vague populiste a donné du pouvoir à certaines forces politiques qui remettent de plus en plus en question l’importance des droits fondamentaux, tels que le droit à la liberté d’expression. En ces temps troublés pour les droits de l’homme, les sondages d’opinion montrent que les citoyens européens considèrent ces droits comme l’une des valeurs les plus importantes au niveau personnel et les plus représentatives de l’Union elle-même. Au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et de ses atrocités, les pays européens étaient déterminés à garantir une paix durable et l’Union qu’ils ont créée est fondée sur le respect de la démocratie, de l’état de droit et des droits de l’homme, principes qui guident et façonnent sa législation et ses politiques. L’Union a récemment, en ce sens, adopté une nouvelle législation sur la protection des données et l’accès à la justice, proclamé le socle européen des droits sociaux et lancé des initiatives pour lutter contre les inégalités, la discrimination et les discours de haine. Il est également admis qu’il reste encore beaucoup à faire pour compléter le cadre juridique en vue de lutter contre la discrimination et de renforcer les mécanismes internes de préservation de l’état de droit. Les droits de l’homme constituent en outre un objectif général de l’action extérieure de l’Union. Cette dernière est profondément attachée à promouvoir les droits de l’homme, tels qu’ils sont consacrés par les traités internationaux, dans ses relations avec les pays tiers et les autres institutions multilatérales régionales et mondiales. Au cours de la dernière législature du Parlement européen, l’Union a constamment appliqué et approfondi une série de stratégies politiques qui renforcent son rôle et son image de puissance normative exemplaire. Le maintien et la consolidation de cette politique restent indispensables pour préserver l’image et la crédibilité de l’Union en tant que puissance normative fondée sur des valeurs et capable d’agir, alors même que le principe du multilatéralisme est de plus en plus remis en cause. La présente note d’information est une révision d’un document publié avant les élections européennes de 2019.

A new directive on work-life balance

02-04-2019

Despite significant progress for some social groups in the area of work-life balance, there has been a general trend of decline since 2011, and progress amongst Member States has been uneven. This proposed directive (complemented with non-legislative measures) should lead to the repeal of the existing Framework Agreement on Parental Leave, made binding by Council Directive 2010/18/EU (the Parental Leave Directive). The new directive contains proposals for paternity, parental and carers’ leave. Stakeholders ...

Despite significant progress for some social groups in the area of work-life balance, there has been a general trend of decline since 2011, and progress amongst Member States has been uneven. This proposed directive (complemented with non-legislative measures) should lead to the repeal of the existing Framework Agreement on Parental Leave, made binding by Council Directive 2010/18/EU (the Parental Leave Directive). The new directive contains proposals for paternity, parental and carers’ leave. Stakeholders have been divided over the level of ambition of the proposed measures. Trilogue negotiations started in September 2018, and a provisional agreement among the three institutions was reached after the sixth trilogue meeting, in January 2019. The provisional agreement is less ambitious than the original Commission proposal and the Parliament’s position, which had, in some ways, gone further than the Commission. The text was approved by the Parliament’s Employment and Social Affairs Committee in February 2019, and now needs to be adopted in plenary. Third edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Zero tolerance for female genital mutilation

05-02-2019

The European Union is committed to working collectively to eradicate female genital mutilation (FGM) as part of broader efforts to combat all forms of violence against women and girls, and to support the efforts of its Member States in this field. The European Commission has undertaken to assess EU efforts to combat FGM every year, on or around the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation on 6 February. This publication is a further update of an 'at a glance' note originally ...

The European Union is committed to working collectively to eradicate female genital mutilation (FGM) as part of broader efforts to combat all forms of violence against women and girls, and to support the efforts of its Member States in this field. The European Commission has undertaken to assess EU efforts to combat FGM every year, on or around the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation on 6 February. This publication is a further update of an 'at a glance' note originally published in January 2015, PE 548.971.

The place of women in European film productions: Fighting the celluloid ceiling

17-01-2019

The sexual assault allegations brought against Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein laid bare the painful reality for scores of women working in the film industry around the world. However, sexual harassment is seemingly just the tip of the iceberg in an industry where gender inequalities relating to biased representation and pay are arguably systematic and pervasive. Europe's own film industry has not been spared. The weighted average of films directed by women in the 2012-2016 period is just 19.6 ...

The sexual assault allegations brought against Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein laid bare the painful reality for scores of women working in the film industry around the world. However, sexual harassment is seemingly just the tip of the iceberg in an industry where gender inequalities relating to biased representation and pay are arguably systematic and pervasive. Europe's own film industry has not been spared. The weighted average of films directed by women in the 2012-2016 period is just 19.6 %, with country results varying from 5 % (Latvia) to 30 % (Sweden). More worryingly, research shows that the various positions in the film industry appear to be dominated by one or the other gender. Thus, women are over-represented in professions traditionally considered feminine – such as costume design and editing – and under-represented in others viewed as more technical, such as those dealing with sound, music and image. To start redressing these imbalances, various EU-level initiatives have been introduced in support of female film projects. One such example is the LUX Film Prize, through which over the past 11 years the European Parliament has been consistently encouraging the dissemination of films directed by women and portraying strong, inspiring female characters. For its part, the European Commission has started measuring women's participation in key positions in projects supported under the Media strand of its Creative Europe programme. Similarly, it is currently considering specific ways for a more gender-balanced provision of support. Yet again, the cultural support fund of the Council of Europe – Eurimages – committed in its 2018-2020 strategy to achieving equal distribution of co production funding between women and men by the year 2020; the distribution of funding currently stands at 38 %. Sweden is the EU leader in terms of regulatory policies at national level. The critical acclaim won by Swedish female filmmakers in the past 10 years has shown that by applying a methodical and systematic approach it is possible to achieve gender equality without compromising quality.

FEMM Mission to Italy - 17-19 December 2018

13-12-2018

The FEMM Committee requested the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs to provide a briefing for a mission to Italy (17-19 December 2018). The focus of this FEMM mission is on conscientious objection to abortion in Italy and the trafficking of migrant women for prostitution in Italy. This briefing provides background information on both subjects.

The FEMM Committee requested the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs to provide a briefing for a mission to Italy (17-19 December 2018). The focus of this FEMM mission is on conscientious objection to abortion in Italy and the trafficking of migrant women for prostitution in Italy. This briefing provides background information on both subjects.

Sexual and reproductive health rights and the implication of conscientious objection

31-10-2018

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It aims to provide a comparative overview of the situation in the European Union, with particular focus on six selected Member States, in terms of access to sexual and reproductive healthcare goods (such as medicines) and services (such as abortion and family planning), from both legal and practical perspectives. The study looks at the extent ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It aims to provide a comparative overview of the situation in the European Union, with particular focus on six selected Member States, in terms of access to sexual and reproductive healthcare goods (such as medicines) and services (such as abortion and family planning), from both legal and practical perspectives. The study looks at the extent to which conscientious objection affects access to sexual and reproductive rights (SRHR). The study will contribute to formulating a clear framework for the improvement of access to sexual and reproductive healthcare goods and services in the EU.

Auteur externe

CF Consulting Services Ltd Ludovica ANEDDA, Lucy ARORA, Luca FAVERO, Nathalie MEURENS, Sophie MOREL, Martha SCHOFIELD (ICF); Senios experts: Prof Anette AGARDH (Lund University), Prof Els LEYE, independent consultant (Ghent University); National researchers: Czech Republic: Klara KOVAROVA (ICF); Croatia: Jelena MILOVANOVIC (ICF); Italy: Thomas TAYLOR-DI PIETRO, Ludovica ANEDDA (ICF); Poland: Krystyna KACPURA, Kamila FERENC (Federation for Women and Family Planning); Portugal: Dália COSTA (University of Lisbon); Sweden: Jack PALMIERI (Lund University).

Cyber violence and hate speech online against women

16-08-2018

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, looks into the phenomenon of cyber violence and hate speech online against women in the European Union. After reviewing existing definitions of the different forms of cyber violence, the study assesses the root causes and impact of online violence on women. It continues by analysing and mapping the prevalence, victims and perpetrators. The document ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, looks into the phenomenon of cyber violence and hate speech online against women in the European Union. After reviewing existing definitions of the different forms of cyber violence, the study assesses the root causes and impact of online violence on women. It continues by analysing and mapping the prevalence, victims and perpetrators. The document ends with an outline of the existing legal framework and recommendations for action within the EU remit.

Auteur externe

Adriane VAN DER WILK, Monika NATTER, ÖSB Consulting GmbH

Women in the Western Balkans: Gender equality in the EU accession process

18-07-2018

Equality between women and men, or gender equality, is a fundamental right and a common value, recognised by the EU. It has been a component of the European integration project from its outset. Enshrined in the EU Treaties, gender equality forms part of the accession conditions with which candidate and potential candidates from the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia) have to comply. Investing in gender equality ...

Equality between women and men, or gender equality, is a fundamental right and a common value, recognised by the EU. It has been a component of the European integration project from its outset. Enshrined in the EU Treaties, gender equality forms part of the accession conditions with which candidate and potential candidates from the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia) have to comply. Investing in gender equality, however, is essential not only as an EU requirement, but for an equal society. Although progress has been noted in these countries as regards gender equality, more work is still required. Equal opportunities would allow EU candidate countries to better tap into the potential and skills of women, and underpin achievements in areas such as economic growth, employment and social cohesion, as well as in peace-building. As part of their preparation for an EU future, the Western Balkan countries have taken steps to advance women's rights in recent years. These include adopting or amending relevant legislation (e.g. criminal and labour laws), elaborating national strategies and action plans, and establishing institutional mechanisms to carry out and monitor relevant policies. Nevertheless, promoting gender equality is often sidelined, and the action taken in this respect is insufficient. Ensuring equality between women and men remains 'unfinished business' in a region where traditional gender roles are deep-rooted and social attitudes and lack of awareness of women's rights are at the core of the problem. This Briefing aims to highlight the EU's efforts to promote gender equality as part of EU enlargement policy, and the way the EU strives to mainstream equality across the board. It also aims to cast light on some major challenges that women face in the Western Balkans, such as their weaker roles in economy and politics, and widespread gender-based violence. This follows up the June 2017 briefing on 'Rights and empowerment of women in the Western Balkans'.

Backlash in Gender Equality and Women’s and Girls’ Rights

15-06-2018

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, is designed to identify in which fields and by which means the backlash in gender equality and women’s and girls’ rights in six countries (Austria, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia) is occurring. The backlash, which has been happening over the last several years, has decreased the level of protection of women and girls and reduced ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, is designed to identify in which fields and by which means the backlash in gender equality and women’s and girls’ rights in six countries (Austria, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia) is occurring. The backlash, which has been happening over the last several years, has decreased the level of protection of women and girls and reduced access to their rights.

Auteur externe

Borbála JUHÁSZ, indipendent expert to EIGE dr. Enikő PAP, legal expert on gender issues, NANE Women's Rights Association National experts: Christiane Ugbor, Sophie Hansal (Austria), Dr. Gabriella Ilonszki (Hungary), Siusi Casaccia (Italy), Zuzana Maďarová (Slovakia), Laura Albu (Romania), Małgorzata Tarasiewicz (Poland)

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