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International Agreements in Progress - After Cotonou: Towards a new agreement with the African, Caribbean and Pacific states

21-09-2021

After two years of negotiations, the text of a renewed partnership agreement between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) states was initialled in April 2021. The current partnership agreement (‘Cotonou’) was due to expire in February 2020. The then ACP Group of States – which later became the Organisation of the ACP States (OACPS) – and the EU started negotiations on a 'post-Cotonou' agreement in September 2018. The EU and the OACPS agreed on the principle of a common ...

After two years of negotiations, the text of a renewed partnership agreement between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) states was initialled in April 2021. The current partnership agreement (‘Cotonou’) was due to expire in February 2020. The then ACP Group of States – which later became the Organisation of the ACP States (OACPS) – and the EU started negotiations on a 'post-Cotonou' agreement in September 2018. The EU and the OACPS agreed on the principle of a common foundation complemented by three regional protocols. The multi-level negotiations, the coronavirus crisis and difficulties in reaching agreement on sensitive issues, such as migration management and sexual and reproductive health and rights, prevented the new agreement from being finalised by the initial expiry date set in the Cotonou Agreement. Thus, to avoid a legal vacuum in relations, the provisions of that agreement were extended until the end of 2021. The European Parliament insisted on maintaining the ACP-EU joint parliamentary assembly and was successful in this endeavour; in addition, three regional parliamentary assemblies will be created in the future institutional set-up of the partnership. The new agreement still needs to be signed by the parties, and further legal procedures will be required before it can be provisionally applied or enter fully into force. Seventh edition. To view earlier editions of this briefing, please see the EPRS blog.

Corruption and human rights in third countries: developments in EU external action since 2017

02-09-2021

In 2017, the European Parliament adopted a Resolution on corruption and human rights in third countries (hereinafter ‘EP 2017 Resolution’) which included a set of practical recommendations on corruption and human rights in EU external relations. This briefing analyses the progress made by EU actors in implementing those recommendations. It focuses on development and human rights tools addressed in the EP 2017 Resolution, including EU funded projects and programmes, technical cooperation, EU human ...

In 2017, the European Parliament adopted a Resolution on corruption and human rights in third countries (hereinafter ‘EP 2017 Resolution’) which included a set of practical recommendations on corruption and human rights in EU external relations. This briefing analyses the progress made by EU actors in implementing those recommendations. It focuses on development and human rights tools addressed in the EP 2017 Resolution, including EU funded projects and programmes, technical cooperation, EU human rights dialogues and public diplomacy, as well as support for whistle-blowers and civil society organisations exposing corruption. It concludes that, while action has been taken on various fronts to support anti-corruption efforts in third countries following the recommendations, a more systematic approach to corruption and human rights could be taken in some areas. Cooperation between EU actors and enhanced capacity building on corruption and human rights are also key elements for a successful anti-corruption strategy in EU external action.

Auteur externe

Rosana GARCIANDIA

The European Commission's legislative proposals in the New Pact on Migration and Asylum

30-07-2021

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs on request of the Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties and Justice, aims to provide a detailed mapping and analysis of the central legal changes and issues characterising the five main legislative proposals accompanying the Pact on Migration and Asylum, presented by the Commission in September 2020. The legislative instruments under consideration include a new Screening Regulation ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs on request of the Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties and Justice, aims to provide a detailed mapping and analysis of the central legal changes and issues characterising the five main legislative proposals accompanying the Pact on Migration and Asylum, presented by the Commission in September 2020. The legislative instruments under consideration include a new Screening Regulation, an amended proposal for an Asylum Procedures Regulation, an amended proposal revising the Eurodac Regulation, a new Asylum and Migration Management Regulation, and a new Crisis and Force Majeure Regulation. As a second step, the study provides a critical assessment of the five proposals as to their legal coherence, fundamental rights compliance, and application of the principle of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility enshrined in Article 80 TFEU.

Auteur externe

Evelien BROUWER; Giuseppe CAMPESI ; Sergio CARRERA, Roberto CORTINOVIS, Eleni KARAGEORGIOU, Jens VEDSTED-HANSEN, Lina VOSYLIŪTĖ

New EU strategic priorities for the Sahel: Addressing regional challenges through better governance

09-07-2021

Recent events have shown that the Sahel region remains highly politically unstable. The military takeover of the Chadian government following President Idriss Déby's sudden death in April 2021 and the repercussions of the August 2020 and May 2021 military coups in Mali are worrying signs of weak democratic governance structures. Burkina Faso's transitional democracy has also been severely destabilised by the activities of extremist groups and internal conflicts. This political fragility and the lack ...

Recent events have shown that the Sahel region remains highly politically unstable. The military takeover of the Chadian government following President Idriss Déby's sudden death in April 2021 and the repercussions of the August 2020 and May 2021 military coups in Mali are worrying signs of weak democratic governance structures. Burkina Faso's transitional democracy has also been severely destabilised by the activities of extremist groups and internal conflicts. This political fragility and the lack of government legitimacy have made the responses to the Sahel's security and humanitarian issues all the more challenging. The continued threat posed by terrorist armed groups and rising intercommunal violence over land and resources have led to both internal and cross-border displacements in Sahel countries. Meanwhile, the inadequacy of governance mechanisms for managing this displacement, compounded by environmental degradation, resource scarcity and population growth, has created a severe humanitarian crisis. Since 2011, the European Union (EU) strategy for the Sahel has focused on both security and development to address these numerous and interconnected challenges. However, EU efforts have remained dominated by a military approach to tackle rising terrorist activity, achieving concrete results but ultimately falling short of long-term regional stability. The new EU integrated strategy in the Sahel aims to strengthen action at the political level, focusing on governance mechanisms, human rights, and collaboration with civil society and local authorities, while maintaining security cooperation with states in the region.

Mali: Yet another coup

16-06-2021

On 24 May 2021, the Malian transitional government suffered a coup – the second in nine months – which cast a shadow on the transition process that should lead to a presidential election in early 2022. These developments risk further destabilising the Sahel and challenge the implementation of the new EU strategy in the region.

On 24 May 2021, the Malian transitional government suffered a coup – the second in nine months – which cast a shadow on the transition process that should lead to a presidential election in early 2022. These developments risk further destabilising the Sahel and challenge the implementation of the new EU strategy in the region.

L’approche de l’Union européenne sur les migrations en Méditerranée

11-06-2021

Cette étude a été réalisée pour le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles, à la demande de la commission LIBE. Elle examine l’approche de l’Union sur les migrations en Méditerranée, en se penchant sur des évènements allant de la crise des réfugiés à la pandémie de COVID-19 et en évaluant les effets que ces évènements ont eu sur l’élaboration, la mise en oeuvre et la réforme des politiques de l’Union sur l’asile, la migration et le contrôle des frontières ...

Cette étude a été réalisée pour le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles, à la demande de la commission LIBE. Elle examine l’approche de l’Union sur les migrations en Méditerranée, en se penchant sur des évènements allant de la crise des réfugiés à la pandémie de COVID-19 et en évaluant les effets que ces évènements ont eu sur l’élaboration, la mise en oeuvre et la réforme des politiques de l’Union sur l’asile, la migration et le contrôle des frontières extérieures. Cette étude comprend un examen de l’état des lieux de la législation européenne concernée et de sa mise en oeuvre, une évaluation de la situation en Méditerranée et une analyse approfondie de la dimension extérieure de ce sujet, axée sur la coopération avec des pays tiers (la Turquie, la Lybie et le Niger). Elle comprend également des éléments sur les droits de l’homme et les droits des réfugiés, ainsi qu’une analyse des conséquences de l’allocation de fonds au titre du fonds fiduciaire d’urgence pour l’Afrique et de la facilité en faveur des réfugiés en Turquie. Le principal objectif de cette étude est de vérifier si la législation européenne et internationale a correctement été appliquée, compte tenu de l’augmentation des allégations de violations des droits de l’homme, de criminalisation injustifiée et de complicité de l’Union dans des crimes atroces commis envers les migrants en mer, ainsi qu’à l’encontre de ceux qui sont bloqués en Lybie ou retenus au Niger et en Turquie. Le rôle des agences de l’Union (l’Agence européenne de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes (Frontex), et le Bureau européen d’appui en matière d’asile (EASO)) est également examiné, tout comme les initiatives bilatérales et multilatérales des États membres. Le principe de solidarité est pris en compte, en tant que préoccupation horizontale.

Auteur externe

Violeta MORENO-LAX,Jennifer ALLSOPP,Evangelia (Lilian) TSOURDI,Philippe DE BRUYCKER,Andreina DE LEO

Preparing the CSDP for the new security environment created by climate change

10-06-2021

While the European Union has developed a number of policy commitments and instruments to deal with the nexus between climate change and security, the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) has lagged behind. This study discusses the security implications of climate change in the EU Neighbourhood and makes recommendations concerning how the CSDP might integrate climate factors into its mission and deliverables. The CSDP will need to adopt a place-specific approach that foregrounds the distinctive ...

While the European Union has developed a number of policy commitments and instruments to deal with the nexus between climate change and security, the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) has lagged behind. This study discusses the security implications of climate change in the EU Neighbourhood and makes recommendations concerning how the CSDP might integrate climate factors into its mission and deliverables. The CSDP will need to adopt a place-specific approach that foregrounds the distinctive social, political and economic dynamics through which climate factors makes themselves felt in different partner countries. The analysis looks in particular depth at the Sahel and the Horn of Africa as two regions where CSDP missions already operate or are likely to operate in the future. Countries in these regions are highly vulnerable to the interaction between a degraded environment and climate change impacts, raising the prospects of humanitarian crises due to food insecurity and internal instability due to competition for resources. These problems compound the EU’s prominent security concerns of terrorism and migration. The EU can move to climate-proof the CSDP through better conflict intelligence and foresight, carefully adapted and adequately resourced mandates, climate-change proofing investments in equipment and infrastructure, and better links to local social and institutional dynamics. The European Parliament should deploy its considerable political capital to support such initiatives, through resolutions, engagement with the UN and other inter-parliamentary fora, and efforts to garner political commitment from the Member States.

Auteur externe

•Christoph MEYER, Professor of Professor of European & International Politics, King’s College London •Francesca VANTAGGIATO, Lecturer in Public Policy, King’s College London, •Richard YOUNGS, Senior Fellow, Carnegie Europe and Professor of International Relations, University of Warwick

Corps européen de solidarité pour la période 2021–2027

12-05-2021

Le corps européen de solidarité figure parmi les priorités de la Commission européenne pour le mandat actuel sous la rubrique 5 «Promouvoir notre mode de vie européen». Dans un premier temps, le programme a souffert d’un problème d’image de marque et d’un manque de communication, car il était en concurrence avec d’autres programmes préexistants qui menaient des activités similaires. La proposition de règlement actuelle fera du programme un guichet unique pour toutes les activités de volontariat solidaire ...

Le corps européen de solidarité figure parmi les priorités de la Commission européenne pour le mandat actuel sous la rubrique 5 «Promouvoir notre mode de vie européen». Dans un premier temps, le programme a souffert d’un problème d’image de marque et d’un manque de communication, car il était en concurrence avec d’autres programmes préexistants qui menaient des activités similaires. La proposition de règlement actuelle fera du programme un guichet unique pour toutes les activités de volontariat solidaire et humanitaire pour les jeunes. Le Parlement européen devrait voter en deuxième lecture lors de sa session plénière de mai sur le texte convenu à la suite des négociations interinstitutionnelles.

Une nouvelle stratégie UE-Afrique – un partenariat pour un développement durable et inclusif

22-03-2021

L’Union européenne (UE) et l’Union africaine (UA) ont des intérêts convergents dans un certain nombre de domaines, tels que la lutte contre le changement climatique et la promotion d’une croissance économique durable et créatrice d’emplois en Afrique. Toutefois, elles doivent encore trouver un terrain d’entente sur la migration, la gestion de la sécurité et les valeurs fondamentales. En mars 2020, la Commission européenne et le haut représentant de l’Union pour les affaires étrangères et la politique ...

L’Union européenne (UE) et l’Union africaine (UA) ont des intérêts convergents dans un certain nombre de domaines, tels que la lutte contre le changement climatique et la promotion d’une croissance économique durable et créatrice d’emplois en Afrique. Toutefois, elles doivent encore trouver un terrain d’entente sur la migration, la gestion de la sécurité et les valeurs fondamentales. En mars 2020, la Commission européenne et le haut représentant de l’Union pour les affaires étrangères et la politique de sécurité et vice-président de la Commission européenne (HR/VP) ont proposé de mettre en place un nouveau partenariat global avec l’Afrique, soulignant la volonté de l’UE de renforcer les liens entre les deux continents. Conformément à cette proposition de partenariat, le Parlement européen devrait débattre d’un rapport d’initiative au cours de sa période de session de mars II.

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - February 2021

04-02-2021

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

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