1168

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Domaine politique
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Climate action in Sweden: Latest state of play

27-10-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Sweden submitted its NECP in January 2020. A high proportion of Swedes (76%) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Sweden accounts for 1.4 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slightly faster pace ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Sweden submitted its NECP in January 2020. A high proportion of Swedes (76%) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Sweden accounts for 1.4 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slightly faster pace than the EU average since 2005. The carbon intensity of Sweden's economy is the lowest in the Union and continues to decrease faster than the EU-wide average. Sweden's transport sector has the highest share of total emissions, but reduced its levels by over 23 % from 2005 to 2019. The sector with the greatest percentage reduction in emissions between 2005 and 2019 – 56.4 % – was waste management. Under the Effort-sharing Decision (2013 2020) Sweden needs to reduce its emissions in sectors not included in the EU emissions trading system by 17 % compared with 2005 levels. The 2030 target under the Effort-sharing Regulation (2021-2030) is a 40 % reduction. The country is well placed to achieve both the 2020 and 2030 targets. The country's share of renewable energy sources was 56.4 % in 2019 and is predicted to reach 65 % by 2030, mainly through wind farms and solar power.

Climate action in Poland: Latest state of play

27-10-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment of each NECP. Poland's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Poles (62 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. The country generates 10.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions were stable over the 2005-2019 period, with only ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment of each NECP. Poland's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Poles (62 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. The country generates 10.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions were stable over the 2005-2019 period, with only small annual variations. The carbon intensity of the Polish economy fell by 44 % over the same period, but remains the second highest in the Union. The energy industries sector, heavily reliant on coal, is the country's largest GHG emitter, with 38 % of total emissions. While energy industry emissions fell by 17 % in the 2005-2019 period, the transport sector emissions increased by 84 %, reaching a 17 % share in 2019. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Poland was permitted to increase its emissions by 14 % compared with 2005 levels by 2020 and now needs to achieve a 7 % reduction by 2030. Poland reached a 12.2 % share of renewable energy sources in 2019, and aims to reach a renewables share of at least 23 % by 2030, by focusing on biomass, offshore wind and biofuels. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States.

Climate action in Slovakia: Latest state of play

27-10-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Slovakia's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Slovaks (63 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Slovakia accounts for 1.1 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced emissions at a similar pace as the ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Slovakia's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Slovaks (63 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Slovakia accounts for 1.1 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced emissions at a similar pace as the EU average between 2005 and 2019. The carbon intensity of Slovakia's economy is significantly above the EU average, but has fallen faster than the EU average. Industry is responsible for the largest part of Slovakia's GHG emissions, with a 37 % share of total emissions. Energy industry emissions fell by 41 % between 2005 and 2019, and accounted for 16 % of Slovakia's emissions in 2019. Emissions from transport and from waste management increased over the same period while emissions from agriculture remained stable. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Slovakia was allowed to increase its emissions by 13 % by 2020, compared with 2005, and will have to reduce them by 12 % by 2030, but is aiming for 20 %. Slovakia achieved a 16.9 % share of renewable energy sources (RES) in 2019, exceeding its 14 % target for 2020. The country aims to reach its 2030 target of a 19.2 % share with onshore wind, photovoltaics and bioenergy. Energy efficiency measures focus on buildings, public sector, industry and transport.

The concept of 'climate refugee': Towards a possible definition

18-10-2021

According to statistics published by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, since 2008 over 318 million people around the world have been forcibly displaced by floods, windstorms, earthquakes or droughts, 30.7 million in 2020 alone. This is equivalent to one person being displaced every second. Depending on the frequency and scale of the major natural disasters occurring, there are significant fluctuations in the total number of displaced people from one year to the next, yet the trend over ...

According to statistics published by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, since 2008 over 318 million people around the world have been forcibly displaced by floods, windstorms, earthquakes or droughts, 30.7 million in 2020 alone. This is equivalent to one person being displaced every second. Depending on the frequency and scale of the major natural disasters occurring, there are significant fluctuations in the total number of displaced people from one year to the next, yet the trend over recent decades has been a growing one. Many find refuge within their own country, but some are forced to go abroad. In the summer of 2021, Europe witnessed heavy and unprecedented flooding, particularly in Belgium and Germany, and heat domes in the Mediterranean region. Scientists relate this directly to climate change. All things considered, the number of 'climate refugees' looks set to rise. So far, the national and international response to this challenge has been limited, and protection for the people affected remains inadequate. What adds further to the gap in protection of such people – who are often described as 'climate refugees' – is that there is neither a clear definition of this category of people, nor are they covered by the 1951 Refugee Convention. The latter extends only to people who have a well-founded fear of being persecuted because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, and who are unable or unwilling to seek protection from their home countries. While the EU has not so far recognised climate refugees formally, it has expressed growing concern and has taken action to support the countries potentially affected by climate-related stress and help them develop resilience. This briefing is an update of an earlier one from January 2019.

Looking to Glasgow: A scene-setter ahead of COP26

15-10-2021

Adopted in 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has gathered the nations of the world with the common goal to limit dangerous global warming. In December 2021, after having been postponed for a year due to the coronavirus crisis, world leaders will meet in Glasgow for the 26th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP26) to continue negotiations on the implementation of the Paris Agreement. The latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...

Adopted in 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has gathered the nations of the world with the common goal to limit dangerous global warming. In December 2021, after having been postponed for a year due to the coronavirus crisis, world leaders will meet in Glasgow for the 26th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP26) to continue negotiations on the implementation of the Paris Agreement. The latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) underscores the of role human activities in causing global warming. The UNFCCC-commissioned IPCC special report on impacts of global warming of 1.5°C (SR1.5) also outlines the risks of current trajectories. There is therefore strong pressure on world leaders to deliver progress in Glasgow. Parties to the Paris Agreement were required to update their nationally determined contributions to fight climate change and its impacts before COP26. Some Parties are yet to do so, while analysis of submitted contributions as of July 2021, shows action to reach the agreed targets remains insufficient. Most key emitting nations continue to rate poorly on their climate action performance. While COP24 and COP25 both failed to finalise the Paris Agreement rulebook, and developed nations so far fall short of fulfilling their climate finance promises, expectations are mounting for Glasgow to finish the job. At the same time, Covid 19 restrictions and impacts continue to create challenges to participate in person, especially for developing countries' delegations. Recent Eurobarometer surveys show citizens have a clear expectation that their governments should handle the climate change challenge, with research also pointing to a growing acceptance of the need to change personal habits in view of transitioning to more sustainable economies. The European Parliament will vote on a motion for a resolution on COP26 at the October II plenary session in Strasbourg. The draft highlights the urgency of action and calls upon leaders to ensure a just transition and adequate support for areas and states vulnerable to climate change impacts.

Conférence sur les changements climatiques (COP 26) à Glasgow

13-10-2021

Du 31 octobre au 12 novembre 2021, la 26e conférence des parties (COP 26) à la convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques se réunira à Glasgow, au Royaume-Uni, en vue de finaliser les règles d’application de l’accord de Paris de 2015 et de renforcer l’engagement mondial en faveur de l’action pour le climat. La commission de l’environnement, de la santé publique et de la sécurité alimentaire du Parlement européen a présenté une proposition de résolution sur la COP 26 qui doit ...

Du 31 octobre au 12 novembre 2021, la 26e conférence des parties (COP 26) à la convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques se réunira à Glasgow, au Royaume-Uni, en vue de finaliser les règles d’application de l’accord de Paris de 2015 et de renforcer l’engagement mondial en faveur de l’action pour le climat. La commission de l’environnement, de la santé publique et de la sécurité alimentaire du Parlement européen a présenté une proposition de résolution sur la COP 26 qui doit être votée lors de la période de session d’octobre II.

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - October 2021

13-10-2021

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Climate action in Hungary: Latest state of play

11-10-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Hungary submitted its NECP in December 2019. A high proportion of Hungarians (60 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Hungary accounts for 1.7 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slower pace than ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Hungary submitted its NECP in December 2019. A high proportion of Hungarians (60 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Hungary accounts for 1.7 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. The carbon intensity of the Hungarian economy decreased by 35 % between 2005 and 2019, at a faster rate than the EU-27 average. Transport emissions increased by just over 19 % in the 2005-2019 period in Hungary, bringing their share of total emissions up to over 22 %. Reductions are expected as the country proceeds with its electromobility measures. The greatest percentage reduction in emissions between 2005 and 2019 – 37.5 % – was made by the energy industries sector. Under the Effort-sharing Decision for the 2013 2020 period, Hungary was allowed to increase its emissions in sectors not included in the EU's emissions trading system by 10 %, compared with 2005 levels, and is on track to achieving that target. Under the Effort-sharing Regulation (2021-2030) Hungary must reduce its emissions by 7 % compared with 2005. The share of renewable energy sources in Hungary reached 12.6 % in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 21 % share is focused mainly on changes to the transport and heating and cooling sectors, where changes to the existing district heating networks are expected.

Climate action in Slovenia: Latest state of play

11-10-2021

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Slovenia submitted its NECP in February 2020. More than half (52 %) of Slovenians expect national governments to tackle climate change. Slovenia accounts for 0.5 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slower pace than ...

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Slovenia submitted its NECP in February 2020. More than half (52 %) of Slovenians expect national governments to tackle climate change. Slovenia accounts for 0.5 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. The carbon intensity of the Slovenian economy decreased by 36 % between 2005 and 2019, a higher rate than the EU average. Energy industry emissions fell by 29.5 % in the 2005-2019 period in the country. Measures, such as coal phase-out, are expected to further decrease these emissions. The sector with the greatest percentage reduction in emissions between 2005 and 2019 – 45.2 % – was 'other emissions' (buildings and tertiary sector). Under the Effort-sharing Decision (2013 2020), Slovenia was allowed to increase emissions in sectors not included in the EU emissions trading system by 4 %, compared with 2005 levels, and is on track to achieve this target. The Effort-sharing Regulation (2021-2030) requires Slovenia to reduce these emissions by 15 %. The share of renewable energy sources in the country reached 22 % in 2019. For 2030 the target is 27 %, to be reached mainly through solar and hydro power, and through the use of wood biomass.

Climate action in Malta: Latest state of play

11-10-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Malta's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Maltese people (75 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Malta, which generates less than 0.1 % of the EU-27's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, has reduced its emissions ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Malta's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Maltese people (75 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. Malta, which generates less than 0.1 % of the EU-27's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, has reduced its emissions at a faster pace than the EU average since 2012. However, according to Malta's NECP, the country's geography and demographics, combined with rising gross domestic product (GDP), will make it difficult to continue this trend. Energy industries account for 28 % of Malta's total emissions. While energy industry emissions dropped by 63 % between 2005 and 2019, emissions in the transport sector grew by 22 % over the same period. Malta's NECP outlines policies and measures to increase the share of renewable energy and reduce transport emissions. However, Malta does not expect to meet its emissions reduction targets under the Effort-sharing Regulation domestically, but intends to make use of flexibilities, including the transfer of annual emissions allocations from other Member States. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States.

Evénements à venir

28-10-2021
Workshop "Envisioning International Justice: what role for the ICC?"
Atelier -
DROI
28-10-2021
Dual quality of goods in the Single Market
Audition -
IMCO
28-10-2021
Public hearing on the "Luxletters revelations"
Audition -
FISC

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