61

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Auteur
Mot-clé
Date

Existing Scientific Evidence of the Effects of Neonicotinoid Pesticides on Bees

14-12-2012

Reports about bee colony losses and damage have increased in recent years all over Europe. Neonicotinoids, a class of systemic insecticides, are more frequently associated with the pollinator declines. The present briefing note gives an overview about neonicotinoid uses and recent scientific findings on their impact on bee colony survival and development. Risk-mitigation measures aimed at protecting non-target organisms (such as bees), are outlined and discussed.

Reports about bee colony losses and damage have increased in recent years all over Europe. Neonicotinoids, a class of systemic insecticides, are more frequently associated with the pollinator declines. The present briefing note gives an overview about neonicotinoid uses and recent scientific findings on their impact on bee colony survival and development. Risk-mitigation measures aimed at protecting non-target organisms (such as bees), are outlined and discussed.

Auteur externe

Margrit Grimm, Katrin Sedy, Elisabeth Süßenbacher and Alarich Riss (Environment Agency Austria - EAA)

European Commission follow-up to European Parliament requests 2017 - 2019

02-06-2020

This study seeks to present a comprehensive overview of non-legislative resolutions adopted by Parliament between January 2017 and May 2019 on the basis of own-initiative reports, in the light of the response provided by the Commission and the subsequent follow-up documents and related actions undertaken by the Commission up to 1 January 2020.

This study seeks to present a comprehensive overview of non-legislative resolutions adopted by Parliament between January 2017 and May 2019 on the basis of own-initiative reports, in the light of the response provided by the Commission and the subsequent follow-up documents and related actions undertaken by the Commission up to 1 January 2020.

Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 on the Placing of Plant Protection Products on the Market

24-04-2018

Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 lays down the main instruments for placing effective plant protection products (using pesticide substances) on the market that are safe for humans, animals and the environment, while at the same time ensuring effective functioning of the internal market and improved agricultural production. This European Implementation Assessment found that the above objectives, while largely relevant to real needs, are not being achieved in practice. In particular, implementation of the ...

Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 lays down the main instruments for placing effective plant protection products (using pesticide substances) on the market that are safe for humans, animals and the environment, while at the same time ensuring effective functioning of the internal market and improved agricultural production. This European Implementation Assessment found that the above objectives, while largely relevant to real needs, are not being achieved in practice. In particular, implementation of the main instruments of the regulation – substance approval, plant protection products authorisation and enforcement of the regulatory decisions taken in the frame of the approvals and authorisations, is problematic, which also affect other related EU policies. Nevertheless, despite the implementation challenges observed, stakeholders – including national competent authorities, health/environment NGOs, manufacturers of substances and plant protection products and their users (farmers) – agree that the EU is the appropriate level at which regulatory action in the field of pesticides (used in plant protection products) should continue to take place.

Auteur externe

Annex I written by Florent PELSY and Lise OULÈS from Milieu Ltd (Belgium) and Evelyn UNDERWOOD (Institute for European Environmental Policy, IEEP). Annex II written by Dr Emanuela BOZZINI (University of Trento, Italy). Annex III written by Dr Olivia HAMLYN (University of Leicester, United Kingdom). Annex IV written by Dr Dovilė RIMKUTĖ (University of Leiden, The Netherlands)

Brazil and the Amazon Rainforest: Deforestation, biodiversity and cooperation with the EU and international forums

15-05-2020

For the largest tropical rainforest on Earth, an aggravated forest fire and deforestation regime in Amazonia put at risk the world’s richest biodiversity assets and a major climate regulator. For the EU27, it highlights the need to associate the question of embodied deforestation consumption by placing deforestation-free supply chains at the centre of negotiations surrounding the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement, given the volume of trade between these economic blocs in meat, leather, soy, coffee ...

For the largest tropical rainforest on Earth, an aggravated forest fire and deforestation regime in Amazonia put at risk the world’s richest biodiversity assets and a major climate regulator. For the EU27, it highlights the need to associate the question of embodied deforestation consumption by placing deforestation-free supply chains at the centre of negotiations surrounding the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement, given the volume of trade between these economic blocs in meat, leather, soy, coffee, rubber, wood pulp, biofuel and timber.

Auteur externe

Cristina MÜLLER

What if insects were on the menu in Europe?

03-07-2020

Insects, while commonly consumed elsewhere in the world, have long been off the menu in Europe – but they could soon be creeping their way onto our plates. Entomophagy, the practice of eating insects, is now gaining serious interest – is it set to take Europe by swarm?

Insects, while commonly consumed elsewhere in the world, have long been off the menu in Europe – but they could soon be creeping their way onto our plates. Entomophagy, the practice of eating insects, is now gaining serious interest – is it set to take Europe by swarm?

Trade and biodiversity

05-06-2020

International trade has a direct impact on EU biodiversity, imported invasive species and pathogens, being an example. Trade also impacts global biodiversity, for instance through the 'virtual' water, land, and deforestation contained in EU imports. Economic theory shows that trade with countries that fail to protect a renewable resource can be detrimental for all. Protecting global biodiversity calls for a variety of instruments, at the EU border as well as in the provisions of preferential agreements ...

International trade has a direct impact on EU biodiversity, imported invasive species and pathogens, being an example. Trade also impacts global biodiversity, for instance through the 'virtual' water, land, and deforestation contained in EU imports. Economic theory shows that trade with countries that fail to protect a renewable resource can be detrimental for all. Protecting global biodiversity calls for a variety of instruments, at the EU border as well as in the provisions of preferential agreements. The EU already includes biodiversity-related non-trade provisions in trade agreements, but these provisions are not legally binding and hardly effective. This is partly explained by the complexity of the issues posed by biodiversity: since there is no simple synthetic indicator, policy instruments are difficult to enforce. However, an effort to specify measurable and verifiable commitments is needed; more binding mechanisms, along with transparent and automatic sanctions in case of non-compliance should be considered.

Auteur externe

Cecilia BELLORA (CEPII, France), Jean-Christophe BUREAU (AgroParisTech, France), Basak BAYRAMOGLU (INRAE, France), Estelle GOZLAN (INRAE, France), Sébastien JEAN (CEPII and INRAE, Paris)

Guidelines for submission and evaluation of applications for the approval of active substances in pesticides

21-09-2018

Active substances are an essential element of pesticides. The approval of active substance occurs at EU level, and guidance documents and guidelines for this procedure exist. They aim to clarify, harmonise and standardise the complex approval process. This study examines the guidance and guidelines which exist for active substance approval; the level of harmonisation among them; the connection to the good laboratory practice (GLP) principles; and provides an overview of the studies which are required ...

Active substances are an essential element of pesticides. The approval of active substance occurs at EU level, and guidance documents and guidelines for this procedure exist. They aim to clarify, harmonise and standardise the complex approval process. This study examines the guidance and guidelines which exist for active substance approval; the level of harmonisation among them; the connection to the good laboratory practice (GLP) principles; and provides an overview of the studies which are required for active substance approval.

Auteur externe

John NGANGA, Michela BISONNI and Maria CHRISTODOULOU, Agra CEAS Consulting IEG

Directive 2009/128/EC on the sustainable use of pesticides

19-10-2018

The study presents the results of evaluation of the implementation of the Directive 2009/128/EC establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. The study was outsourced and prepared by a consortium led by ÖIR GmbH, in collaboration with Arcadia International, t33 and external experts. The study covers the implementation of the directive as a whole. Furthermore, it concentrates on the implementation of the integrated pest management principles in the individual ...

The study presents the results of evaluation of the implementation of the Directive 2009/128/EC establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. The study was outsourced and prepared by a consortium led by ÖIR GmbH, in collaboration with Arcadia International, t33 and external experts. The study covers the implementation of the directive as a whole. Furthermore, it concentrates on the implementation of the integrated pest management principles in the individual Member States. In addition, it also provides an analysis concerning of a the development of harmonised risk indicators, the imposition of limitation and bans of on the usage of pesticides in sensitive specific sensitive areas, and the impacts that of the use of pesticides has on drinking water. The analysis is accompanied by recommendations on how to improve the implementation processes.

Interactions entre l'agriculture et le changement climatique et entre l'agriculture et la biodiversité

15-07-2013

Au cours des prochaines décennies, la croissance démographique et le développement économique auront pour effet de faire augmenter la demande mondiale de nourriture et d'énergie tirées des sols. Cette évolution coïncidera avec la nécessité d'adapter l'agriculture aux menaces croissantes liées au climat (une tâche probablement trop lourde et qui mettra à mal les possibilités de l'Europe) tout en réduisant l'incidence des émissions agricoles sur le changement climatique. Parallèlement, les pertes de ...

Au cours des prochaines décennies, la croissance démographique et le développement économique auront pour effet de faire augmenter la demande mondiale de nourriture et d'énergie tirées des sols. Cette évolution coïncidera avec la nécessité d'adapter l'agriculture aux menaces croissantes liées au climat (une tâche probablement trop lourde et qui mettra à mal les possibilités de l'Europe) tout en réduisant l'incidence des émissions agricoles sur le changement climatique. Parallèlement, les pertes de biodiversité dues aux pratiques de l'agriculture intensive et à l'abandon des pratiques agricoles respectueuses de la biodiversité devraient se poursuivre. La viabilité à long terme de l'agriculture est compromise par des tendances comme la dégradation des sols, le déclin des pollinisateurs, la perte du contrôle biologique naturel des organismes nuisibles et des maladies, ou encore la perte de la diversité génétique végétale et animale. L'Europe doit entreprendre des changements en profondeur de ses systèmes agricoles si elle veut réduire rapidement ses émissions agricoles de gaz à effet de serre et s'adapter efficacement au changement climatique, tout en renforçant la conservation de la biodiversité. Ce rapport propose une série d'options recommandables de nature à conduire à l'adoption d'actions bénéfiques, à réduire les pratiques non durables, et à promouvoir des actions innovantes, tout en mettant en place des garde-fous environnementaux capables de protéger la biodiversité des potentielles incidences négatives des nouvelles technologies mises en oeuvre.

Auteur externe

E. Underwood, J. Poláková, B. Kretschmer, A. J. McConville and G. M. Tucker (IEEP) ; E. Dooley, A. Frelih-Larsen and S. Naumann (Ecologic Institute) ; S. Berman, M. Sarteel and C. Tostivint (BIO Intelligence Service) ; N. M. van der Grijp (Institute for Environmental Studies - IVM ; VU University) ; N. Maxted (School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham)

Collective intelligence at EU level: Social and democratic dimensions

31-03-2020

Humans are among the many living species capable of collaborative and imaginative thinking. While it is widely agreed among scholars that this capacity has contributed to making humans the dominant species, other crucial questions remain open to debate. Is it possible to encourage large groups of people to engage in collective thinking? Is it possible to coordinate citizens to find solutions to address global challenges? Some scholars claim that large groups of independent, motivated, and well-informed ...

Humans are among the many living species capable of collaborative and imaginative thinking. While it is widely agreed among scholars that this capacity has contributed to making humans the dominant species, other crucial questions remain open to debate. Is it possible to encourage large groups of people to engage in collective thinking? Is it possible to coordinate citizens to find solutions to address global challenges? Some scholars claim that large groups of independent, motivated, and well-informed people can, collectively, make better decisions than isolated individuals can – what is known as 'collective intelligence.' The social dimension of collective intelligence mainly relates to social aspects of the economy and of innovation. It shows that a holistic approach to innovation – one that includes not only technological but also social aspects – can greatly contribute to the EU's goal of promoting a just transition for everyone to a sustainable and green economy in the digital age. The EU has been taking concrete action to promote social innovation by supporting the development of its theory and practice. Mainly through funding programmes, it helps to seek new types of partners and build new capacity – and thus shape the future of local and national innovations aimed at societal needs. The democratic dimension suggests that the power of the collective can be leveraged so as to improve public decision-making systems. Supported by technology, policy-makers can harness the 'civic surplus' of citizens – thus providing smarter solutions to regulatory challenges. This is particularly relevant at EU level in view of the planned Conference on the Future of Europe, aimed at engaging communities at large and making EU decision-making more inclusive and participatory. The current coronavirus crisis is likely to change society and our economy in ways as yet too early to predict, but recovery after the crisis will require new ways of thinking and acting to overcome common challenges, and thus making use of our collective intelligence should be more urgent than ever. In the longer term, in order to mobilise collective intelligence across the EU and to fully exploit its innovative potential, the EU needs to strengthen its education policies and promote a shared understanding of a holistic approach to innovation and of collective intelligence – and thus become a 'global brain,' with a solid institutional set-up at the centre of a subsidised experimentation process that meets the challenges imposed by modern-day transformations.

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