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This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, examines reforms to the legal framework for the exchange of personal and other data between the EU and the USA that would be necessary to ascertain that the requirements of EU law are satisfied and that the rights of EU citizens are respected, following the Schrems II judgment of the EU Court of Justice.

With internet-based communications services, such as webmail, messaging services and internet telephony, becoming subject to the strict confidentiality requirements of the e-Privacy Directive, providers' deployments of specific technologies to detect, report and remove child sexual abuse material online now appear unlawful. To accommodate such practices, the European Commission proposed a regulation that would temporarily exempt them from certain provisions of the e-Privacy Directive, without, however ...

In this research paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of online advertising markets and we analyse the challenges and opportunities concerning digital advertising. We review the degree to which existing and proposed legislation at EU level addresses the identified problems, and identify potential solutions, with reference to experience from EU Member States and third countries. We conclude with a synthesis and specific policy recommendations, drawing on stakeholder interviews. This document ...

Data Governance Act

Briefing 17-06-2021

Data is a key pillar of the European digital economy. To unlock its potential, the European Commission aims to build a market for personal and non-personal data that fully respects European rules and values. While the volume of data is expected to increase dramatically in the coming years, data re-use is hampered by low trust in data-sharing, conflicting economic incentives and technological obstacles. As the first of a set of measures announced in the European strategy for data, the Commission put ...

The analysis considers evidence on the expected impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on jobs, discusses the potential of AI to create decent jobs and explores the extent to which AI offers opportunities and poses risks to working conditions. The analysis examines current policies at the European Union (EU) and Member State level and recommends some areas for action at the EU level.

The CJEU judgment in the Schrems II case

Sracfhéachaint 15-09-2020

In its July 2020 Schrems II judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) declared the European Commission’s Privacy Shield Decision invalid on account of invasive US surveillance programmes, thereby making transfers of personal data on the basis of the Privacy Shield Decision illegal. Furthermore, the Court stipulated stricter requirements for the transfer of personal data based on standard contract clauses (SCCs). Data controllers or processors that intend to transfer data based on ...

The near-ubiquity of data in the lives of ordinary people, along with its exponential growth in generation rate and potential misuse, has made the protection of personal information an increasingly important social, legal and political matter for the EU. In recent years, both awareness of data rights and expectations for EU action in this area have grown considerably. The right to privacy and the right to protection of personal data are both enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU ...

This in-depth analysis discusses the opportunities and challenges brought by the recent and the foreseeable developments of Artificial Intelligence into online platforms and marketplaces. The paper advocates the importance to support trustworthy, explainable AI (in order to fight discrimination and manipulation, and empower citizens), and societal-aware AI (in order to fight polarization, monopolistic concentration and excessive inequality, and pursue diversity and openness). This document was ...

This briefing is one in a set looking at the Commissioners-designate and their portfolios as put forward by Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen. Each candidate faces a three-hour public hearing, organised by one or more parliamentary committees. After that process, those committees will judge the candidates' suitability for the role based on 'their general competence, European commitment and personal independence', as well as their 'knowledge of their prospective portfolio and their communication ...

Facebook’s envisaged cryptocurrency project Libra may enable a way of more connected, digital banking. However, it also triggered a debate around the added value of cryptocurrencies. What would change for banks, businesses and consumers with the new digital currency?