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Future EU-Turkey relations

23-10-2018

In June 2018, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was re-elected as president of Turkey, this time with extended powers under the revised Turkish Constitution. Over the previous couple of years, his country's relationship with the EU had been challenged by issues such as the ongoing management of the migration crisis and the EU-Turkey Agreement, the attempted military coup in Istanbul and Ankara, and the ensuing purge, which the EU and international organisations criticised for its disproportionate severity. With ...

In June 2018, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was re-elected as president of Turkey, this time with extended powers under the revised Turkish Constitution. Over the previous couple of years, his country's relationship with the EU had been challenged by issues such as the ongoing management of the migration crisis and the EU-Turkey Agreement, the attempted military coup in Istanbul and Ankara, and the ensuing purge, which the EU and international organisations criticised for its disproportionate severity. With the constitutional referendum and the subsequent parliamentary and presidential elections, President Erdogan further reinforced his position at the helm of the institutional system and raised concerns among the EU and NATO about his commitment to Western institutions. Turkey deepened its relations with Russia, buying military equipment and coordinating with it on Syrian policies on the ground. At the same time, US-Turkish relations worsened due to the Syrian conflict and the imprisonment of a US pastor by Turkey, although he was subsequently released. Negotiations on Turkey's accession to the EU have nevertheless continued, despite an increasingly lively debate in some Member States about whether or not they should be halted. Some have proposed striking an economic agreement with Turkey as an alternative to membership. Others believe the outcome of the negotiations on the UK's future relationship with the EU might also provide a possible model for Turkey. Despite the numerous hurdles before it, accession not only remains the ultimate objective of EU-Turkey relations, endorsed by both the European Council and by Turkey, but it also provides potential for reform and dialogue regarding common standards, not least in the area of civil liberties.

Future trade relations between the EU and the UK: Options after Brexit

16-03-2018

This study analyses the various options for the future trade relations between the EU and the UK, after Brexit. It examines the various models against the canvas of two distinct paradigms: market integration and trade liberalization. It finds that an intermediate model, which would allow for continued convergence and mutual recognition in some sectors/freedoms, but not others, is unavailable and cannot easily be constructed for legal, institutional, and political reasons. The stark choice is between ...

This study analyses the various options for the future trade relations between the EU and the UK, after Brexit. It examines the various models against the canvas of two distinct paradigms: market integration and trade liberalization. It finds that an intermediate model, which would allow for continued convergence and mutual recognition in some sectors/freedoms, but not others, is unavailable and cannot easily be constructed for legal, institutional, and political reasons. The stark choice is between a customs union/free trade agreement, or continued internal market membership through the EEA or an equivalent agreement. The study further analyses the effects of Brexit on the UK’s continued participation in the trade agreements concluded by the EU. Notwithstanding a range of complexities, the study finds that such continued participation is not automatic but subject to negotiation.

Údar seachtarach

Piet Eeckhout

Brexit and Ireland – Legal, political and economic considerations

22-11-2017

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, describes the legal, political and economic relations of the two parts of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and possible arrangements for dealing with "Brexit". The paper discusses several specific issues, in particular the Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom, the consequences of an "invisible" border between the two parts ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, describes the legal, political and economic relations of the two parts of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and possible arrangements for dealing with "Brexit". The paper discusses several specific issues, in particular the Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom, the consequences of an "invisible" border between the two parts of Ireland, and trade in agricultural products.

Smart Border 2.0 Avoiding a hard border on the island of Ireland for Customs control and the free movement of persons

22-11-2017

TThis study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides background on cross-border movement and trade between Northern Ireland and Ireland and identifies international standards and best practices and provide insights into creating a smooth border experience. The technical solution provided is based on innovative approaches with a focus on cooperation, best practices and technology that ...

TThis study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides background on cross-border movement and trade between Northern Ireland and Ireland and identifies international standards and best practices and provide insights into creating a smooth border experience. The technical solution provided is based on innovative approaches with a focus on cooperation, best practices and technology that is independent of any political agreements on the EU's exit from the EU and offers a template for future UK-EU border relationships.

The settlement of disputes arising from the United Kingdom's Withdrawal from the European Union

17-11-2017

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, analyses the various jurisdiction options, under EU law and under public international law, in settling disputes arising from the Withdrawal Agreement of the UK from the EU and in the context of the Future Relationship Agreement with the UK. It examines in particular the continued involvement of the CJEU in the new context of the EU-UK relations ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, analyses the various jurisdiction options, under EU law and under public international law, in settling disputes arising from the Withdrawal Agreement of the UK from the EU and in the context of the Future Relationship Agreement with the UK. It examines in particular the continued involvement of the CJEU in the new context of the EU-UK relations and, based on CJEU case-law and previous international agreements, presents the various governance possibilities for these agreements.

THE IMPACT OF BREXIT ON THE EU ENERGY SYSTEM

15-11-2017

This study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) shows that the energy-system related impact of Brexit on EU citizens and companies will be limited. The EU will be able to complete its market, achieve its climate and energy targets and maintain supply security. It appears likely (although not guaranteed) that the UK will continue to maintain sensible environmental policies and safeguard the rights of EU companies ...

This study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) shows that the energy-system related impact of Brexit on EU citizens and companies will be limited. The EU will be able to complete its market, achieve its climate and energy targets and maintain supply security. It appears likely (although not guaranteed) that the UK will continue to maintain sensible environmental policies and safeguard the rights of EU companies in the UK. However, special attention on the impact of Brexit on the Irish energy system is warranted.

Údar seachtarach

Gustav FREDRIKSSON, Alexander ROTH Simone TAGLIAPIETRA, Georg ZACHMANN

Study in focus: Review of EU-third country cooperation on policies falling within the ITRE domain in relation to Brexit

15-06-2017

The study provides a critical assessment of the implications of existing models of cooperation of third countries with the European Union in each of four thematic areas for which the ITRE is responsible (energy, electronic communications, research policy, and small business policy). This briefing provides short summary of this study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/602057/IPOL_STU(2017)602057_EN.pdf

The study provides a critical assessment of the implications of existing models of cooperation of third countries with the European Union in each of four thematic areas for which the ITRE is responsible (energy, electronic communications, research policy, and small business policy). This briefing provides short summary of this study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/602057/IPOL_STU(2017)602057_EN.pdf

Údar seachtarach

J. Scott MARCUS, Georgios PETROPOULOS, André SAPIR, Simone TAGLIAPIETRA, Alessio TERZI, Reinhilde VEUGELERS, Georg ZACHMANN

The consequences of Brexit on Services and Establishment. Different Scenarios for Exit and Future Cooperation

15-06-2017

This paper addresses the challenges Brexit will pose to the future of trade in services between the EU and the UK. It discusses the specific barriers to cross-border establishment and trade in services and possible solutions for a future EU-UK trade agreement. Hereby, it takes existing EU Free Trade Agreements with other states into consideration. This research paper has been commissioned by Policy Department at the request of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee.

This paper addresses the challenges Brexit will pose to the future of trade in services between the EU and the UK. It discusses the specific barriers to cross-border establishment and trade in services and possible solutions for a future EU-UK trade agreement. Hereby, it takes existing EU Free Trade Agreements with other states into consideration. This research paper has been commissioned by Policy Department at the request of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee.

An Assessment of the Economic Impact of Brexit on the EU 27

15-06-2017

This paper, managed by the Policy Department on Economic and Scientific Policies for the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection, assesses the likely impact of Brexit on EU27, together with some scenarios for the terms of the UK’s secession. For the EU 27, the losses are found to be virtually insignificant, and hardly noticed in the aggregate. By contrast, for the UK, the losses could be highly significant, with various estimates up to ten times greater as a share of GDP. Impacts on ...

This paper, managed by the Policy Department on Economic and Scientific Policies for the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection, assesses the likely impact of Brexit on EU27, together with some scenarios for the terms of the UK’s secession. For the EU 27, the losses are found to be virtually insignificant, and hardly noticed in the aggregate. By contrast, for the UK, the losses could be highly significant, with various estimates up to ten times greater as a share of GDP. Impacts on some Member States – in particular Ireland – and some sectors in the EU27 could be more pronounced than the average for the EU27.

Údar seachtarach

Michael Emerson, Matthias Busse, Mattia Di Salvo, Daniel Gros and Jacques Pelkmans (Centre for European Policy Studies - CEPS, Brussels, Belgium)

Consequences of Brexit in the area of public procurement

15-06-2017

This paper examines the implications of the UK’s departure from the EU for the EU-UK legal relationship in the field of public procurement. It assesses, in comparison with the position under EU membership, the implications of four approaches found in the EU’s relationships with other trading partners: the EEA model; the GPA model; and, between these two, what we call an “EEA-minus” approach and a “GPA-plus” approach. It also notes the procurement-specific issues that may need to be addressed in any ...

This paper examines the implications of the UK’s departure from the EU for the EU-UK legal relationship in the field of public procurement. It assesses, in comparison with the position under EU membership, the implications of four approaches found in the EU’s relationships with other trading partners: the EEA model; the GPA model; and, between these two, what we call an “EEA-minus” approach and a “GPA-plus” approach. It also notes the procurement-specific issues that may need to be addressed in any withdrawal agreement (or later transition arrangement). This document was prepared for Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

Údar seachtarach

Sue ARROWSMITH, Public Procurement Research Group, School of Law, University of Nottingham

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