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Blockchain and the General Data Protection Regulation

24-07-2019

In recent times, there has been much discussion in policy circles, academia and the private sector regarding the tension between blockchains and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (‘GDPR’). Whereas, the GDPR is based on an underlying assumption that in relation to each personal data point there is at least one the data controller, blockchains make the allocation of responsibility and accountability burdensome. Further, although the GDPR is based on the assumption that data can ...

In recent times, there has been much discussion in policy circles, academia and the private sector regarding the tension between blockchains and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (‘GDPR’). Whereas, the GDPR is based on an underlying assumption that in relation to each personal data point there is at least one the data controller, blockchains make the allocation of responsibility and accountability burdensome. Further, although the GDPR is based on the assumption that data can be modified or erased where necessary to comply with legal requirements, blockchains, however, render the unilateral modification of data purposefully onerous in order to ensure data integrity and to increase trust in the network.

The role of constitutional courts, a comparative law perspective - Canada: The Supreme Court

23-07-2019

This study is part of a wider project investigating, from a comparative law perspective, the role of constitutional courts of different states. Following a brief historical introduction to the jurisdiction of the state in question, the various reports examine the composition, internal organization, functioning, jurisdiction of the various highest courts, as well as the right of access to its courtroom, its procedural rules, and the effects and the execution of its judgments. The present study examines ...

This study is part of a wider project investigating, from a comparative law perspective, the role of constitutional courts of different states. Following a brief historical introduction to the jurisdiction of the state in question, the various reports examine the composition, internal organization, functioning, jurisdiction of the various highest courts, as well as the right of access to its courtroom, its procedural rules, and the effects and the execution of its judgments. The present study examines Canada’s highest court, the Supreme Court. While all judicial courts may rule on constitutional matters, the Supreme Court of Canada enjoys a privileged status in the Canadian legal landscape. As the ultimate arbiter of the Constitution, it has the final word with respect to constitutional interpretation, notably in constitutional matters. It thus plays a central role in Canada’s federal democracy.

Údar seachtarach

EPRS, Comparative Law

Detecting and protecting victims of trafficking in hotspots

15-07-2019

This study focuses on the issue of trafficking in human beings in the specific context of hotspots. It analyses the processes in place to facilitate the detection of victims when they arrive by sea on Greek and Italian shores, as well as the protection they are granted.

This study focuses on the issue of trafficking in human beings in the specific context of hotspots. It analyses the processes in place to facilitate the detection of victims when they arrive by sea on Greek and Italian shores, as well as the protection they are granted.

European Central Bank appointments: Role of the European Parliament

15-07-2019

The European Parliament plays an important role in the appointment processes of two European Central Bank bodies: the Executive Board and the Supervisory Board (Chair and Vice-Chair). This paper aims to: a) provide an overview of the relevant procedural provisions, b) present a selection of past appointments; and c) describe the evolving role of the European Parliament in those procedures. This document was prepared by Policy Department A for the Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee.

The European Parliament plays an important role in the appointment processes of two European Central Bank bodies: the Executive Board and the Supervisory Board (Chair and Vice-Chair). This paper aims to: a) provide an overview of the relevant procedural provisions, b) present a selection of past appointments; and c) describe the evolving role of the European Parliament in those procedures. This document was prepared by Policy Department A for the Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee.

Parliamentary scrutiny of the European Commission: Implementation of Treaty provisions

09-07-2019

The European Parliament's application of scrutiny prerogatives of political oversight of the European Commission increases the democratic legitimacy of the European Union, and the transparency and accountability of the European executive. The update of the 2018 study examines the European Parliament's powers of scrutiny of the European Commission in the last two legislative terms. The cases examined pertain mainly to electoral and institutional issues, motions of censure, parliamentary questions, ...

The European Parliament's application of scrutiny prerogatives of political oversight of the European Commission increases the democratic legitimacy of the European Union, and the transparency and accountability of the European executive. The update of the 2018 study examines the European Parliament's powers of scrutiny of the European Commission in the last two legislative terms. The cases examined pertain mainly to electoral and institutional issues, motions of censure, parliamentary questions, inquiry committees and special parliamentary committees and reporting, consultation and provision of information. It also touches upon scrutiny in budgetary issues, scrutiny of delegated acts, scrutiny in the legislative procedure, legal proceedings and the EU's external relations.

Impact Assessment and European Added Value work during the eighth legislative term, 2014-2019

03-07-2019

The responsibility for better law-making is shared between the European Union institutions. In recent years Parliament has developed its own instruments to guarantee proper and independent assessment and to support parliamentary committees in their work. The concept of impact assessment is applied throughout the whole policy cycle – on both an ex-ante and an ex-post basis – from the design of legislation through to its implementation, evaluation and revision. The European Parliament also advocates ...

The responsibility for better law-making is shared between the European Union institutions. In recent years Parliament has developed its own instruments to guarantee proper and independent assessment and to support parliamentary committees in their work. The concept of impact assessment is applied throughout the whole policy cycle – on both an ex-ante and an ex-post basis – from the design of legislation through to its implementation, evaluation and revision. The European Parliament also advocates a proper assessment of European added value, in terms of what savings will result from a European solution and if supplementary costs would arise in the absence of a European solution. This briefing provides a look back over five years’ experience in support of better regulation for the benefit of citizens.

La ratification des traités internationaux, une perspective de droit comparé - France

24-06-2019

Cette étude fait partie d’un projet plus global qui a le but d’analyser depuis une perspective de droit comparé la ratification des traités internationaux dans différents États. L'objet de cette étude est d’examiner la ratification des traités internationaux en droit français, en particulier le régime juridique applicable, la procédure et une estimation des temps nécessaires pour la ratification. Pour ce faire, après une introduction générale, sont examinées les dispositions législatives et réglementaires ...

Cette étude fait partie d’un projet plus global qui a le but d’analyser depuis une perspective de droit comparé la ratification des traités internationaux dans différents États. L'objet de cette étude est d’examiner la ratification des traités internationaux en droit français, en particulier le régime juridique applicable, la procédure et une estimation des temps nécessaires pour la ratification. Pour ce faire, après une introduction générale, sont examinées les dispositions législatives et réglementaires régissant la procédure d’adoption des traités, la répartition des compétences entre les différents acteurs impliqués, ainsi que les étapes principales de la procédure de conclusion des traités. Le rôle du pouvoir législatif en France est encadré puisque sa fonction de contrôle se limite au vote d’un projet de loi d’autorisation de ratification ou d’approbation. La France ne reconnait pas aux régions et autres collectivités territoriales la compétence de conclure des engagements internationaux, mais elle admet quelques exceptions concernant les collectivités d’Outre-mer. Cette étude prétend être utile aux différents organes du Parlement européen, afin de dévoiler une vision complète du processus de ratification par l’État en analyse (en le cas d’espèce la France). Cela permettra par exemple aux organes du Parlement de fixer leurs calendriers de travaux, en tenant compte d’une estimation du temps dont la contrepartie aura besoin pour compléter la ratification d’un futur traité.

Údar seachtarach

Ce document a été rédigé par Prof. Dr. Marie-Claire Ponthoreau, Professeur de droit public à l’Université de Bordeaux, à la demande de l’Unité Bibliothèque de droit comparé, Direction générale des services de recherche parlementaire (DG EPRS), Secrétariat général du Parlement européen.

Seirbhísí na Ranna Beartais (ITRE go hAchomair)

14-06-2019

Soláthraíonn Roinn Beartais A saineolas ardcháilíochta, anailís cothrom le dáta agus taighde neamhspleách do na coistí a dtacaíonn sí leo: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE agus IMCO. Díríonn an bróisiúr seo ar na seirbhísí a chuireann an Rannóg Beartais ar fáil do Choiste ITRE.

Soláthraíonn Roinn Beartais A saineolas ardcháilíochta, anailís cothrom le dáta agus taighde neamhspleách do na coistí a dtacaíonn sí leo: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE agus IMCO. Díríonn an bróisiúr seo ar na seirbhísí a chuireann an Rannóg Beartais ar fáil do Choiste ITRE.

Seirbhísí na Ranna Beartais (IMCO i bhFócas)

14-06-2019

Soláthraíonn Roinn Beartais A saineolas ardcháilíochta, anailís cothrom le dáta agus taighde neamhspleách do na coistí a dtacaíonn sí leo: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE agus IMCO. Díríonn an bróisiúr seo ar na seirbhísí a chuireann an Rannóg Beartais ar fáil do Choiste IMCO.

Soláthraíonn Roinn Beartais A saineolas ardcháilíochta, anailís cothrom le dáta agus taighde neamhspleách do na coistí a dtacaíonn sí leo: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE agus IMCO. Díríonn an bróisiúr seo ar na seirbhísí a chuireann an Rannóg Beartais ar fáil do Choiste IMCO.

Seirbhísí na Ranna Beartais (ENVI go hAchomair)

14-06-2019

Soláthraíonn Roinn Beartais A saineolas ardcháilíochta, anailís cothrom le dáta agus taighde neamhspleách do na coistí a dtacaíonn sí leo: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE agus IMCO. Díríonn an bróisiúr seo ar na seirbhísí a chuireann an Rannóg Beartais ar fáil do Choiste ENVI.

Soláthraíonn Roinn Beartais A saineolas ardcháilíochta, anailís cothrom le dáta agus taighde neamhspleách do na coistí a dtacaíonn sí leo: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE agus IMCO. Díríonn an bróisiúr seo ar na seirbhísí a chuireann an Rannóg Beartais ar fáil do Choiste ENVI.

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