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Strategic communications as a key factor in countering hybrid threats

10-03-2021

This report describes the key features, technologies and processes of strategic communications to counter hybrid threats and their components. The theoretical description of hybrid threats is complemented by the analysis of diverse case studies, describing the geopolitical context in which the hybrid threat took place, its main features, the mechanisms related to strategic communications used by the victim to counter the hybrid threat and its impact and consequences. A comprehensive set of policy ...

This report describes the key features, technologies and processes of strategic communications to counter hybrid threats and their components. The theoretical description of hybrid threats is complemented by the analysis of diverse case studies, describing the geopolitical context in which the hybrid threat took place, its main features, the mechanisms related to strategic communications used by the victim to counter the hybrid threat and its impact and consequences. A comprehensive set of policy options aimed at improving the EU response to hybrid threats is also provided.

Vanjski autor

DG, EPRS_This study has been written by Juan Pablo Villar García, Carlota Tarín Quirós and Julio Blázquez Soria of Iclaves S.L., Carlos Galán Pascual of the University Carlos III of Madrid, and Carlos Galán Cordero of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

EU cyber sanctions: Moving beyond words

25-09-2020

The EU recognises that cybersecurity and cyber-defence are critical for its prosperity, security and global ambitions. Offensive cyber-attacks by malicious actors show no sign of slowing down (not even during the coronavirus pandemic) and thus require concrete dissuasive measures. In July 2020, the EU Member States decided for the first time to use the 'teeth' rooted in the EU cyber-diplomacy framework and to 'bite cyber perpetrators back' by placing sanctions on them. This precedent has helped reinforce ...

The EU recognises that cybersecurity and cyber-defence are critical for its prosperity, security and global ambitions. Offensive cyber-attacks by malicious actors show no sign of slowing down (not even during the coronavirus pandemic) and thus require concrete dissuasive measures. In July 2020, the EU Member States decided for the first time to use the 'teeth' rooted in the EU cyber-diplomacy framework and to 'bite cyber perpetrators back' by placing sanctions on them. This precedent has helped reinforce the EU's cyber policy action.

5G in the EU and Chinese telecoms suppliers

08-04-2019

The spectrum auctions of fifth-generation (5G) mobile telecoms networks planned in 17 EU Member States for 2019 or 2020 have sparked a highly politicised debate in the EU about whether the use of Chinese 5G equipment in critical EU infrastructure poses a threat to security. While Australia, Japan, and New Zealand have followed the United States (US) in imposing a (partial) ban on Chinese telecom vendors, EU Member States appear to privilege EU-coordinated national risk-mitigating measures over a ...

The spectrum auctions of fifth-generation (5G) mobile telecoms networks planned in 17 EU Member States for 2019 or 2020 have sparked a highly politicised debate in the EU about whether the use of Chinese 5G equipment in critical EU infrastructure poses a threat to security. While Australia, Japan, and New Zealand have followed the United States (US) in imposing a (partial) ban on Chinese telecom vendors, EU Member States appear to privilege EU-coordinated national risk-mitigating measures over a ban.

What if your emotions were tracked to spy on you?

13-03-2019

Recent reports of celebrity singer, Taylor Swift, deploying facial recognition technology to spot stalkers at her concerts raised many eyebrows. What started out as a tool to unlock your smartphone or tag photos for you on social media is surreptitiously becoming a means of monitoring people in their daily lives without their consent. What impact and implications are facial recognition technology applications likely to have, and what can be done to ensure the fair engagement of this technology with ...

Recent reports of celebrity singer, Taylor Swift, deploying facial recognition technology to spot stalkers at her concerts raised many eyebrows. What started out as a tool to unlock your smartphone or tag photos for you on social media is surreptitiously becoming a means of monitoring people in their daily lives without their consent. What impact and implications are facial recognition technology applications likely to have, and what can be done to ensure the fair engagement of this technology with its users and the public at large?

Russia in the Western Balkans

06-07-2017

The Western Balkans have emerged as a front in Russia's geopolitical confrontation with the West. Building on close historical ties, Moscow is taking advantage of the political and economic difficulties to expand its influence, potentially undermining the region's stability.

The Western Balkans have emerged as a front in Russia's geopolitical confrontation with the West. Building on close historical ties, Moscow is taking advantage of the political and economic difficulties to expand its influence, potentially undermining the region's stability.

Transatlantic data flows

23-05-2016

Privacy Shield is a new framework for transatlantic exchanges of personal data, agreed between the European Commission and the US government. Although it has significant improvements compared to its predecessor, Safe Harbour, concerns remain to be addressed before its finalisation.

Privacy Shield is a new framework for transatlantic exchanges of personal data, agreed between the European Commission and the US government. Although it has significant improvements compared to its predecessor, Safe Harbour, concerns remain to be addressed before its finalisation.

EYE 2016 – We are not afraid!

28-04-2016

The year 2015 confirmed once again that terrorism is a serious threat to international security. The EU plays an active role in supporting Member States' measures to ensure security, be it through strengthening the control of firearms, securing borders or using new technologies. Security, however, needs to be balanced with the respect for fundamental rights. Communities also have an important part to play in preventing terrorism. This note has been prepared for the European Youth Event, taking place ...

The year 2015 confirmed once again that terrorism is a serious threat to international security. The EU plays an active role in supporting Member States' measures to ensure security, be it through strengthening the control of firearms, securing borders or using new technologies. Security, however, needs to be balanced with the respect for fundamental rights. Communities also have an important part to play in preventing terrorism. This note has been prepared for the European Youth Event, taking place in Strasbourg in May 2016. Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

Foreign fighters – Member State responses and EU action

09-03-2016

As the hostilities in Syria and Iraq continue, and terrorist activities worldwide appear to be on the rise, EU Member States are increasingly confronted with the problem of aspiring and returning 'foreign fighters'. Whereas the phenomenon is not new, its scale certainly is, explaining the wide perception that these individuals are a serious threat to the security of both individual Member States and the EU as a whole. International fora, including the United Nations, have addressed the problem, ...

As the hostilities in Syria and Iraq continue, and terrorist activities worldwide appear to be on the rise, EU Member States are increasingly confronted with the problem of aspiring and returning 'foreign fighters'. Whereas the phenomenon is not new, its scale certainly is, explaining the wide perception that these individuals are a serious threat to the security of both individual Member States and the EU as a whole. International fora, including the United Nations, have addressed the problem, with the UN adopting a binding resolution in 2014 specifically addressing the issue of foreign fighters. The EU is actively engaged in international initiatives to counter the threat. Within the EU, security in general, and counter-terrorism in particular, have traditionally remained within the Member States' remit. The EU has, however, coordinated Member State activities regarding the prevention of radicalisation, the detection of travel for suspicious purposes, the criminal justice response, and cooperation with third countries. The EU is seeking to strengthen its role, given the public feeling of insecurity in the wake of recent terrorist attacks. The EU's role as a forum to discuss security issues has consequently grown during 2015. Individual Member States have stepped up their efforts to address the problem, using various tools including criminal law, administrative measures and 'soft tools', such as counter-radicalisation campaigns. The Member States most affected have also cooperated with each other outside the EU framework. The United States has a particularly developed counter-terrorism framework, now used to deal with foreign fighters. Since 9/11, the EU and the USA cooperate on counter-terrorism, despite differing philosophies on issues such as data protection. This briefing substantially updates an earlier one, PE 548.980, from February 2015.

EU-Brazil cooperation on internet governance and ICT issues

30-10-2015

Following revelations of large-scale Internet surveillance Brazil and the EU have become actively involved in the global debate on internet governance. Since early 2014 cyber policy has become part of the agenda of the EU-Brazil Strategic Partnership. The two have agreed on the need for support for inclusive and transparent internet governance based on a multistakeholder governance model, and are moving forward on a number of related bilateral initiatives in the 2015-2017 Joint Action Plan. In 2014 ...

Following revelations of large-scale Internet surveillance Brazil and the EU have become actively involved in the global debate on internet governance. Since early 2014 cyber policy has become part of the agenda of the EU-Brazil Strategic Partnership. The two have agreed on the need for support for inclusive and transparent internet governance based on a multistakeholder governance model, and are moving forward on a number of related bilateral initiatives in the 2015-2017 Joint Action Plan. In 2014, Brazil hosted the Global Multistakeholder Meeting on Future Internet Governance (NETMundial) which established principles on internet governance endorsed by both the EU and Brazil. These encompass inclusiveness, legitimacy, accountability, and global public interest. As a move towards greater independence of digital flows between Latin America and the Europe, the Brazilian government and the EU are developing a project to establish a public-private partnership to lay a submarine fibre-optic cable across the Atlantic Ocean, from Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil) to Lisbon (Portugal). Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

The CJEU's Schrems ruling on the Safe Harbour Decision

26-10-2015

On 6 October 2015, the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) declared invalid the European Commission's decision on the adequacy of the US data protection system (Safe Harbour Decision). In this judgment, regarding the transfer of personal data from the EU to the USA, the Court also clarified that national supervisory authorities are always allowed to investigate the lawfulness of data transfers and, if necessary, to suspend them. The case underlines the requirement for ensuring high-level protection ...

On 6 October 2015, the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) declared invalid the European Commission's decision on the adequacy of the US data protection system (Safe Harbour Decision). In this judgment, regarding the transfer of personal data from the EU to the USA, the Court also clarified that national supervisory authorities are always allowed to investigate the lawfulness of data transfers and, if necessary, to suspend them. The case underlines the requirement for ensuring high-level protection when EU citizens' data are transferred to third countries. The implications for businesses, governments and EU institutions, as well as for EU-US relations, remain to be clarified.

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