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This study seeks to present a comprehensive overview of non-legislative resolutions adopted by the Parliament between July 2019 and December 2021 on the basis of own-initiative reports, in the light of the response provided by the Commission, the subsequent follow-up documents and related actions undertaken by the Commission up to 31 January 2022. The publication is part of Parliament’s Strategic Execution Framework (2019-2021). The aim of this joint DG PRES and DG EPRS project on 'Improved reporting ...

Regulation (EU) No 258/2012 lays down procedural rules at EU level for export, import and transit of firearms, their parts and components and ammunition. Its overall strategic objective is to reduce the risk of illicit trafficking in firearms for civilian use by ensuring coherence across EU Member States with regard to rules on external trade. The regulation is part of an overall legal and operational framework intended to prevent, detect, investigate and prosecute firearms trafficking. In this regard ...

Fluorinated gases ('F-gases') are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), with a global warming potential (GWP) up to 25 000 times higher than that of CO2. Used in a wide range of appliances – such as refrigerators, air conditioners, foams and fire extinguishers – F-gas emissions occur throughout appliances' life cycles. Today, F-gas emissions amount to 2.5 % of the EU's total GHG emissions, levels having doubled between 1990 and 2014, in contrast to those of other GHG emissions, which fell. The steep increase ...

Ecodesign and energy labelling policies play an important role in the decarbonisation of the energy system. Ecodesign bans the least-efficient products from the market, while energy labelling guides consumers towards the most energy efficient products. While the Ecodesign Directive focused largely on energy aspects, its revision became necessary in light of the transition to a circular economy where the use of natural resources is reassessed to maximise their value and minimise their waste. The recently ...

The role of the European political parties, often under-estimated in the past, has increased significantly over the years. Today, they are important coordinators within the EU political system, carrying out a variety of activities that can be classified conceptually as ‘vertical’, ‘horizontal’ and ‘diagonal’ coordination. This EPRS study explores the growing 'politicisation' of the European Council and the increased coordination role which European political parties appear to play in the context ...

Russia's war on Ukraine and the linked issue of energy security constituted the clear focus of the European Council meeting held on 24 25 March 2022. The meeting included a joint session with the President of the United States of America, Joe Biden, and it formed part of a trilogy of summit meetings in Brussels (NATO, G7 and EU) demonstrating Western unity in support of Ukraine and in response to President Vladimir Putin's unacceptable violation of international law. The main outcomes of the meeting ...

On 24-25 March 2022, EU Heads of State or Government will meet for the third time in five weeks. In the presence of the United States President, Joe Biden, they will discuss developments in and support for Ukraine, in the context of the unprovoked Russian invasion of the country. Building on their Versailles Declaration of 10-11 March, EU leaders will take further steps aimed at strengthening European sovereignty in the field of security, defence and energy security. As regards security and defence ...

At the informal European Council of 10-11 March 2022, EU leaders adopted the Versailles declaration condemning the ‘unprovoked and unjustified’ Russian military aggression against Ukraine. They set strategic guidelines for security and defence, energy and economic and financial affairs.

On 24 February 2022, at a special European Council meeting following Russia's invasion of Ukraine, EU leaders delivered a message of unity and determination, acknowledging 'the European aspirations and the European choice of Ukraine' and reiterating the EU's support to the territorial integrity of the country. They condemned Russia's continued violation of international law, and stressed that Russia 'will be held accountable for its actions'. EU leaders also approved politically a new package of ...

The role of the French Parliament has varied under successive French Republics. The Constitution of the Fifth Republic, adopted in 1958, was amended by referendum in 1962 to establish the direct election of the President by universal suffrage. This created a hybrid political regime with some presidential and some parliamentary characteristics, sometimes described as a 'semi-presidential regime' or a 'hyper-presidential' regime. The government is responsible to Parliament, but contrary to classical ...